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艺术类大学英语答案

时间:2016-06-24 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:【艺术类院校大学英语第一册】课文翻译及课后答案

英语第一册 课文翻译及课后答案(9~16)

第九单元

歌剧的性质

三百多年以来,歌剧已经成为一种最吸引人的音乐娱乐形式。各具独特的魅力与和他有关的一些分不开——咏叹调,歌唱家和角色,更不用说它的首映夜了。 卡门,咪咪,维奥莱塔,特里斯坦无论是在现实中还是故事中,是什么样的人物能拥有一代又一代那么重视的观众呢?

歌剧就是演唱出来的戏剧。 它把声乐、器乐资源---独唱家、合奏,合唱团、乐队、芭蕾与诗歌、戏剧、表演、哑剧、舞台场景、还有戏服等办法融合起来。把多种元素融为一体并不简单,这一点一直让音乐史上一些最有聪明才智的人大伤脑筋。

乍一看,歌剧似乎不太可能让观众那么容易相信它。因为它呈现给我们的是一些人沉浸在剧情中不用对话用歌声来表达感情。有理由问这样一个问题(从歌剧诞生以来文学家们既已经尖锐地问过了):一种这么不自然的艺术如何让人信服呢?这个问题忽略了一点:让艺术一直都具有激情的最基本的东西:不是去复制自然,而是提高我们对自然的意识。的确,现实中的人们不会对唱,也不会像莎士比亚笔下的人物那样用无韵诗对话,他们也不住在为方便观众看见里面而缺少一面墙的房间里。所有的艺术使用一些艺术家和观众都能接受的传统,歌剧使用的传统比诗歌、绘画、戏剧、或电影更明显但本质有不一样。一旦我们已经接受毯子能飞的事实,也就很容易相信它也可以带上把王子的行李。

歌剧在诗化的戏剧中具有独特的作用。他利用人类的声音以其独有的力量把人类最基本的情感——爱、恨、妒嫉、快乐、悲伤对观众形成强大的冲击。现实的逻辑在歌剧的舞台上被艺术超越现实的逻辑所替代,被音乐对心灵产生的力量所替代。

Structure

V.

1. Paul couldn’t dance, neither could he sing.

2. My bother Joe never learned to swim, neither does he want to start now.

3. I was not surprised at the news and neither were my family.

4. Cathy had hardly said anything today, neither had her mother.

VI.

1. those2. those 3.ones 4.one 5. that

Translation

VIII.

1.An opera is a drama that is sung. But they are not different in kind.

2.He will give up the dream once he accepts the fact that he can’t be a good actor. 3.Movie, opera, painting and poetry are all alluring forms of art.

4.A special glamour of opera is that it combines the resources of vocal and instrumental music with other diverse elements into a unity.

5.Mary does not like Ballet, nor does she like drama, not to mention opera.

第十单元

威廉?莎士比亚

威廉?莎士比亚是世界上最伟大的剧作家和最好的用英语写作的诗人。他也是最受欢迎的作家。没有一个作家的作品像他那样被如此多的国家的人广为阅读。威廉莎士比亚比别的作家更理解人。他创作出人物所具有的意义超越了剧本反映的时间和空间。这些任务是独立的个人,他们在生活中抗争者,向现实中的人们一样,有时成功,有时又以痛苦和悲哀的结局告终。莎士比亚写了至少37部喜剧,表现了他在各方面学科的指示。包括音乐、法律、圣经、军事科学、舞台、艺术、政治、海洋、历史、狩猎和体育运动。莎士比亚出生在一个小镇上的中产阶级家庭,18岁结婚后不久就离开家乡去了伦敦。几年内就成了伦敦城的注脚演员和剧作家。到16162年时,他已经是英国最受欢迎的剧作家了。

威廉?莎士比亚是最伟大的英语语言文学天才。尽管今天的人们记住他是因为它是最早的英语剧作家,然而他早在16世纪90年代就因为抒情诗 和叙事诗 而享誉世界了。在写出《亨利四世上篇后》他第一次作为剧作家获得成功。接下来的二十多年,他写了一系列的广受称赞的剧本,这些剧本大体上分三类,历史剧、喜剧、悲剧或悲喜剧。他的历史剧和戏剧都很成功。但是毫无疑问,莎士比亚的盛誉在于它在《罗密欧与朱莉叶》、《澳赛罗》和《哈姆雷特》等悲剧中对人物所作的深刻的探索。 在统治了伦敦剧场20多年后,他回到了家乡,过着比较安逸的舒适的生活,直到1616年去世。

Structure

V.

1. The Americans spend Christmas Day just as Chinese People spend Spring Festival.

2. English is taught in your country just as Spanish is taught in ours.

3. Animals feel pain just as we do.

4. He is keen on disco just as I am fond of classical music.

VI.

1. He was ill for about one month, which set him back a lot in his studies.

2. It was raining hard, which kept us indoors.

3. He said he had lost the book, which was untrue.

4. Jim’s first novel was published, which may hardly believe it.

Translation

1. He found a good job shortly after he arrived America.

2. Shakespeare is not only the greatest playwright but also one of the most popular poet in the world.

3. The earth runs around the sun just as the moon runs around the earth.

4. He lived in relative ease and comfort in the countryside.

第十一单元

假如你是个演员,在台上忘了自己的台词,那你会怎么办呢?

机智的反应

有些剧目十分成功,以致连续上演好几年。这样一来,可怜的演员们可就倒霉了。 因为他们需要一夜连着一夜地重复同样的台词。人们以为,这些演员们一定会把台词背得烂熟,决不会临场结巴的,但情况却并不总是这样。

有一位名演员曾在一出极为成功的剧目中扮演一个贵族角色,这个贵族已在巴士底狱被关押了20年。在最后一幕中,狱卒手持一封信上场,然后将信交给狱中那位贵族。尽管那个贵族每场戏都得念一遍那封信,但他还是坚持要求将信的全文写在信纸上。

一天晚上,狱卒决定与他的同事开一个玩笑,看看他反复演出这么多场之后,是否已将信的内容记熟了。大幕拉开,最后一幕戏开演,贵族一个人坐在铁窗后阴暗的牢房里。这时狱卒上场,手里拿着那封珍贵的信。狱卒走进牢房,将信交给贵族。但这回狱卒给贵族的信没有象往常那样把全文写全,而是一张白纸。狱卒热切的观察着,急于想了解他的同事是否记熟了台词。贵族盯着白纸看了几秒钟,然后,眼珠一转,说道:“光线太暗,请给我读一下这封信。”说完,他一下子将信递给了狱卒。狱卒发现自己连一个字也记不住,于是便说:“陛下,这儿光线的确太暗了,我得去把眼镜拿来。”他一边说着,一边匆匆下台。贵族感到非

常好笑的是:一会儿工夫,狱卒重新登台,拿来

一副眼镜以及平时使用的那封信,然后为那囚犯念了起来。

Structure

V.

1. Mother insisted that we should be back before 9 in the evening.

2. The teacher insisted that he should read the book once again before he

writing the report.

3. The monitor insisted that we should put on a short play at the English

evening.

4. The director insisted that the novel should be made into a film.

VI.

1. His reactions are so quick that no one can match him.

2. He was so tired that he couldn’t wake up .

3. They are such wonderful players that no one can beat them.

4. He is such a marvelous joker that you can’t help laughing.

VII.

1. went on working

2. go on living

3. went on to tell

4. went on to show

Translation

IX.

1. Some movies are so successful that they run for months on end.

2. The actress will be cast in the role of a queen in her next film.

3. He soon learnt the lines by heart.

4. She nodded, smiled, and went on stitching.

5. One would expect them to know their parts by heart. Yet this is not always the case.

第十二单元

你知道吗,第一批舞蹈大师是在意大利出现的,就连芭蕾这个词也起源于意大利语,源生于动词“舞蹈”。你还想多了解一些舞蹈的知识吗?

舞蹈简史

舞蹈的历史和人类在地球上生存的历史一样久,运动艺术是最古老的艺术之一,实际上这并不足为奇,因为我们周围的许多事物处于永恒的运动状态。江河奔腾,潮涨潮落,季节交替,日夜更迭。我们因害怕而哭喊,因吃惊而举手,或者伸出手去拥抱所爱的人。

处在一个自身运动的世界里,人们总是通过舞蹈跳出他们对于世界的情感。舞蹈的起源可追溯到史前时代。早在舞蹈成为复杂艺术之前,人们就喜欢摇摆,转圈,踩出节奏,如同现在小孩仍在玩耍的那样。意识到自然力的运动,史前人类以各种方式舞蹈,他们希望这些方式能取悦那些力量或给这些力量以新的威力。猎人在出发狩猎前狂舞,武士在战斗前跳舞。部落为驱除魔鬼,祈求神灵恩赐而举行舞蹈。有祈求降雨的舞蹈,有庆祝丰收的舞蹈,有祝贺诞生的舞蹈。有表明青春期发育的舞蹈,有举行婚礼的舞蹈,有举行葬礼的舞蹈,也许还有只为娱乐而举行的舞蹈。

从某种意义上说,所有利用人体的运动所产生的舞蹈都是相似的,但是由于人体活动方式多种多样,舞蹈在文化之间差异大得惊人。不过,根据其功能或目的,将舞蹈分类还是可能的。例如,根据目的,舞蹈可分为三大类:跳舞者自娱自乐的舞蹈,为取悦神灵的舞蹈,也有取悦别人的舞蹈。

象亚洲的大多数艺术一样,亚洲舞蹈通常与宗教联系在一起,或许具有忏悔祈祷的特征。印度舞蹈的某些形式成为精神舞蹈,因为印度人相信世界是由舞神洛德诗华 创造的。印度人发展了舞蹈,它不仅包括胳臂和腿部的复杂活动,还包括诸如颈、鼻、腕、眼等身体部位的活动,这些活动在西方舞蹈中并不受重视。

古代西方文明中最有影响的要数希腊文明。希腊人相信舞蹈是受神灵的启示而产生的,这种艺术在希腊宗教、教育和戏剧中起着举足轻重的作用。

Structure

V.

1. Finding the door unlocked, I went into the kitchen.

2. Hoping to find buried treasure, he entered the cave.

3. Wanting to do something useful, she taught some school children French free.

4. Realizing that this was no ordinary fish, the fisherman made effort not to damage it.

Translation

VIII.

1. Customs vary greatly from country to country.

2. The world population can be divided into 3 broad categories according to its skin color.

3. The origins of Fine Arts are rooted in the prehistoric past.

4. In the children’s minds, summer is associated with picnics.

5. Dance played an important part in Greek religion, education, and theatre.

第十三单元

著名勤奋的表演者,38岁的乌韦·素兹是芭蕾界赫赫有名的舞蹈指导兼芭蕾舞总监。

为了心中的芭蕾

在德国如果一家歌剧院被迫精简,通常是舞蹈演员首先感到压力。这便是莱比锡歌剧院的遭遇。有一个人对确保芭蕾舞团的存活功不可没。三十八岁的舞蹈指导兼芭蕾舞总监乌韦·素兹因全力挽救莱比锡芭蕾舞团及其对德国舞蹈事业的贡献刚刚获得著名的德国舞蹈大奖。 身为古典舞及现代舞大师的乌韦·素兹被不少评论家誉为德国最佳舞蹈指导。他十八岁时发觉了自己对舞蹈的狂热,对此至今仍津津乐道。

乌韦:我接触舞蹈艺术就像处女成为母亲,完全是机遇使然。我想对这问题你可能会再问我一次。每当我编写舞蹈设计时,每当我想到莫扎特及其音乐时,每当我试着写出开始的几个

舞步时,我便知道那是我的工作,是单纯的跳舞远不能及的。

三十来岁的乌韦·素兹已有二十二年的国际事业。自91年开始他已是莱比锡芭蕾舞团的芭蕾舞总监兼主要舞蹈指导。他以自己对巴赫的创意激动着评论家和观众。不久前他赢得蛮夷戏剧奖,现在又获得德国舞蹈大奖。但尽管如此,多年来,乌韦仍要挣扎着维持公司,避免其成为莱比锡市严格、繁琐的制度的牺牲品。

乌韦:由于莱比锡市的经济状况,我被迫或多或少去亲自演出每晚的芭蕾,这样一直持续了八年。我尝试不一次次重复演出节目,以免让观众厌倦。我想我一定有些疯了,坚持了这么久。那种斗争是残酷的,经常是你死我活的斗争。没有正常人能够忍受。

他还要再多捱两年,然后与莱比锡市的合约才到期。他认为到时的情况要看资金而定。因为就艺术上来说呀几乎愿为观众做一切演出,甚至是像《睡美人》这样的老掉牙的戏。

Structure

V.

1. Hey couldn’t take part in the sports meet because of his broken leg.

2. We were sorry to hear that Mr. Davidson had to retire at the age of fifty because of his poor health.

3. They didn’t go to the concert because of the storm.

4. It was because of the noise that I didn’t fall asleep.

VI.

1. as far as I am concerned

2. as far as the acting and music are concerned

3. As far as ability is concerned

4. As far as we students are concerned

Translation

VIII .

1. I have made sure that her conclusion was based on the facts.

2. Uwe Scholtz, master of classical and modern dance hailed by many reviewers as Germany’s best choreographer.

3. I’m forced to do more or less every ballet evening myself.

4. I bumped into Sally purely by chance.

5. We were thrilled to hear your wonderful news.

第十四单元

你看过电影《卧虎藏龙》吗?你知道谁是这部电影的导演吗?

导演李安

《卧虎藏龙》在星期日(美国当地时间)赢得了四项学院奖,其中包括最佳外语片奖,最佳摄影奖,最佳艺术指导奖和最佳原创音乐奖。星期一,美国洛山矶的华裔们涌出家门为导演李安喝彩,激赏他通过电影使中国文化引人注目。

1954年李安出生于台湾。他于1983年毕业于纽约大学电影制作专业。在第二个儿子出生时,他在银行里只有26美元的存款。李安在家里劳碌了六年,他一边打理家务,一边梦想着自己的电影制作事业。李安的父亲是个中学校长,他总是为儿子设定很高的标准。因此,李安知道他命里注定得做大事。第二个儿子出生的那天,他意识到自己再不能整天在家洗盘子了。

篇二:试题集 学生用 艺术类大学英语D

Part 1

Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over each passage quickly and answer the questions. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D).For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with information given in the passage . Passage 1

Adapting to the New World

Originally, I was born in South Korea and lived there all my life until I married and moved to America. While living in America for five years now, I have tried to adapt to the rapid pace of change in my life. Although I felt worried at first, I doubted that I would find many differences between our two countries. After all, we are much alike even though we speak different languages, and have different traditions and cultures. People in both countries wear blue jeans, love children, and seek freedom. Despite these similarities, I found it difficult to adjust, for so much was alien to me.

Most difficult for me was learning a new language. I discovered that American English combines the influence of many other languages, mostly European but many of them global. The language is basically English, of course, for the English, who came over on the Mayflower, settled here early, and in the largest numbers. On the other hand, the Korean language was heavily influenced by Chinese until about 400 years ago. For Korean learners of English, the different uses of noun and verb are hard to grasp, at first. For example, an English speaker would ask a question by reversing the noun and verb, and often separating the verb, as in ―Where are you going?‖ However, in Korean, one would ask, ―You go where?‖ Learning a new language was hard for me, but an essential part of beginning life in this wondrous land.

Next, I needed to adjust to American food, which is relatively mild, with the exception of Cajun dishes. Generally, Korean food is very spicy, like Kimchi, which covers many types of pickled cabbage and other vegetables; Koreans cannot live without it, and often make their own from old family recipes. In addition, Koreans enjoy low fat, mostly vegetarian diets. The American diet, on the other hand, consists of high-fat, very salty items, like the fast food and instant TV dinners which are so popular. These foods may account for the high rates of heart attacks and strokes, cholesterol-clogged veins, and fatness among Americans.

Finally, Koreans and Americans treat marriage very differently. Even though we have entered the twenty-first century, many Korean marriages are arranged by matchmakers hired by parents. Or, parents of marriageable children will get together and arrange their marriages. Of course, some marriages come about through dating just as in America—young people meet, fall in love, and decide to marry. Yet, despite or because of arranged marriages, the Korean divorce rate is very low compared with American divorces. This may be due largely to the strong family bonds in Korea.

On the other hand, young people in America are allowed the greatest freedom in choosing their partners; they base marriages almost entirely on love, never through matchmakers. And a very strong trend, nowadays, is for two persons to live together for a while before getting married, though many never formally marry.

Despite these differences between our cultures, I‘ve realized that Koreans and Americans

have much in common. We tend to seek freedom, share the same excitement at a new birth, and want to make good friends. Also, we place a high value on hard work, often spending long hours at our own businesses in order to send our children to good colleges; we want to give them opportunities earlier generations could only dream of. If we can learn to accept cultural differences as unique values, the world may be more peaceful. We need to put aside our often unfounded attitudes of superiority and prejudice against other cultures.

1. After marriage, the author lived in .

A) South Korea

B) England

C) China

D) America

2. According to the first paragraph, the author believed that .

A) it would not be difficult to adjust to life in the United States

B) people in the two countries liked to do similar things

C) it would be relatively easy to adapt to the rapid change in her life

D) the similarities between the two countries were greater than the differences

3. According to the passage, the author discovered that .

A) American English is mainly based on English

B) Chinese is greatly influenced by Korean language

C) English is easy for Koreans to learn

D) of all European languages, only English is regarded as a global language

4. Why did the author find learning English to be difficult?

A) Because English combines the influence of European and Asian languages.

B) Because the Korean language is closer to Chinese than to English.

C) Because the different uses of English verbs are hard to grasp.

D) Because learning a new language is difficult for adults.

5. Generally, for Koreans the favorite diet is .

A) Cajun dishes

B) Kimchi

C) fast food

D) instant TV dinners

6. American food is different from Korean food in that it A) causes heart attacks and strokes

B) is made from old family recipes

C) is generally quite mild

D) is usually very spicy

7. In what way do most Korean marriages differ from American marriages?

A) Koreans can live together first before formally marrying.

B) Korean marriages are not based on love.

C) Koreans marry only with permission from their parents.

D) Korean marriages are arranged by matchmakers or parents.

8. Despite arranged marriages, the rate of Korea divorces is not higher than that of .

9. American marriages are mainly based on .

10. Though there are some cultural differences, both Koreans and Americans place a high value

on .

Passage 2

Seven Steps to a More Satisfying Job

Many people today find themselves in unhappy work situations. In fact, one in four workers is dissatisfied with their current job, according to the recent ―Plans for 2004‖ survey. Their career path may be financially rewarding, but it doesn‘t meet their emotional, social or creative needs. They‘re unhappy, and have no idea what to do about it, except move to another job.

Mary Lyn Miller, experienced career consultant(顾问)and founder of the Life and Career Clinic, says that when most people are unhappy about their work, their first thought is to get a different job. Instead, Miller suggests looking at the possibility of a different life. Through her book, workshops, seminars(研讨会) and personal coaching and consulting, she has helped thousands of dissatisfied workers reassess(重新评价) life and work.

Miller developed a 7-step process to help potential job seekers assess their current situation and beliefs, identify their real passion, and start on a j

艺术类大学英语答案

ourney that allows them to pursue their passion through work.

Step 1: Willingness to do something different.

Breaking the cycle of doing what you have always done is one of the most difficult tasks for job seekers. Many find it difficult to steer away from a career path or make a change, even if it doesn‘t feel right. Miller urges job seekers to open their minds to other possibilities beyond what they are currently doing.

Step 2: Commitment to being who you are, not who or what someone wants you

to be.

Look at the gifts and talents you have and do pursue those things that you love most. If you love the social aspects of your job, but are stuck inside an office or ―chained to your desk‖ most of the time, vow(发誓) to follow your instinct and investigate alternative careers and work that allow you more time to interact with others. Dawn worked as a manager for a large retail clothing store for several years. Though she had advanced within the company, she felt frustrated and longed to be involved with nature and the outdoors. She decided to go to school nights and weekends to pursue her true passion by earning her master‘s degree in forestry(林学). She now works in the biotech forestry division of a major paper company.

Step 3: Self-definition

Miller suggests that once job seekers know who they are, they need to know how to sell themselves. ―In the job market, you are a product. And just like a product, you most know the features and benefits that you have to offer a potential client, or employer.‖ Examine the skills and knowledge that you have and identify how they can apply to your desired occupation. Your qualities will exhibit to employers why they should hire you over other candidates.

Step 4: Attain a level of self-honoring(肯定自我).

Self-honoring or self-love may seem like an odd step for job hunters, but being able to accept yourself, without judgment, helps eliminate insecurities and will make you more self-assured(有自信的). By accepting who you are – all your emotions, hopes and dreams, your personality, and your unique way of being – you‘ll show more confidence when talking with potential employers.

The power of self-honoring can help to break all the falsehoods(谎言) you were made to believe – those that made you feel that you were not good enough, or strong enough, or intelligent enough to do what you truly desire.

Step 5: Vision(想像).

Miller suggests that job seekers develop a vision that involves an answer to ―What do I really want to do?‖ One should create a dozen of sentences that describe in detail how they see their life related to work. For instance, the secretary who longs to be an actress describes a life that allows her to express her love of Shakespeare on stage. A real estate agent, attracted to his current job because her loves fixing up old homes, describes buying properties that need a little tender loving care to make them more saleable.

Step 6: Appropriate risk.

Some philosophers believe that the way to enlightenment comes through facing obstacles and difficulties. Once people discover their passion, many are too scared to do anything about it. Instead, they do nothing. With this step, job seekers should assess(评价) what they are willing to give up, or risk, in pursuit of their dream. For one working mom, that meant taking night classes to learn new computer-aided design skills, while still earning a salary and keeping her day job. For someone else, it may mean quitting his or her job, taking out loan and going back to school full time. You‘ll move one step closer to your ideal work life if you identify how much risk you are willing to take and the sacrifices you are willing to make.

Step 7: Action.

Some teachers of philosophy describe action in this way, ―If one wants to get to the top of a mountain, just sitting at the foot thinking about it will not bring one there. It is by making the effort of climbing up the mountain, step by step, that eventually the summit(山的顶峰) is reached.‖ All too often, it is the lack of action that ultimately holds people back from attaining their ideals. Creating a plan and taking it one step at a time can lead to new and different job opportunities. Job-hunting tasks gain added meaning as you are aware of their importance in your quest for(为了寻找) a more meaningful work life. The plan can include researching industries and occupations, talking to people who are in your desired area of work, taking classes, or accepting volunteer work in your targeted field.

Each of these steps will lead you on a journey to a happier and more rewarding work life. After all, it is the journey, not the destination, that is most important.

1. According to the recent ―Plans for 2004‖ survey, .

A) most people are unhappy with their current jobs

B) one in four workers is dissatisfied with their current jobs

C) a lot of people are satisfied with their current jobs

D) no people are satisfied with their current jobs

2. What do most people first think of when they feel unhappy about their work according to Mary

Lyn Miller?

A) Getting a different job.

B) Writing books.

C) Working as private coaches.

D)Having seminars .

篇三:【艺术类院校大学英语第二册】课文翻译及课后答案

南京艺术学院第二册英语课文翻译(1~10)

第一单元

你去过古玩店吗?如果你能像买家那样博学,你就有可能买到不同凡响但又很便宜的东西。幸运的发现

古玩店对许多人来说有一种特殊的魅力。高档一点的古玩店为了防尘,把文物漂亮地陈列在玻璃柜子里,那里往往令人望而却步。而对不太装腔作势的古玩店,无论是谁都不用壮着胆子才敢往里进。人们还常常有希望在发霉,阴暗,杂乱无章,迷宫般的店堂里,从杂乱地摆放在地面上的,一堆堆各式各样的破烂货里找到一件稀世珍品。

无论是谁都不会一下子就发现一件珍品。一个到处找便宜货买的人必须具有耐心,而且最重要的是看到珍品时要有鉴别珍品的能力。要做到这一点,他至少要像古董商一样懂行。他必须像一个专心致志进行探索的科学家一样抱有这样的希望,即终有一天,他的努力会取得丰硕的成果。

我的老朋友弗兰克哈利戴正是这样一个人。他多次向我详细讲他如何只花50英镑便买到一位名家的杰作。一个星期六的上午,弗兰克去了我家附近的一家古玩店。由于他从未去过那儿,结果他发现了许多有趣的东西。上午很快过去了,弗兰克正准备离去,突然看见地板上放着一只体积很大的货箱。古董商告诉他那只货箱刚到不久,但他嫌麻烦不想把它打开。经弗兰克恳求,古董商才勉强把货箱撬开了。箱内东西令人失望。除了一柄式样别致、雕有花纹的匕首外,货箱内装满了陶器,而且大部分都已破碎。弗兰克轻轻地把陶器拿出箱子,突然发现在箱底有一幅微型画,画面构图与线条使他想起了一幅他所熟悉的意大利画,于是他决定将画买下来。古董商漫不经心看了一眼那幅画,告诉弗兰克那画值50英镑。弗兰克几乎无法掩饰自己兴奋的心情,因为他明白自己发现了一件珍品。那幅不大的画原来是柯勒乔的一幅未被发现的杰作,价值几十万英镑。

第二单元

无论是男人、女人还是儿童,都可以从他们的衣着和外表的其他方面感受到时尚的影响。

时装流行的原理

时尚一直在变化和发展。时尚的五条基本原理是识别时尚及其流行趋势的基础。这些时尚原理保持不变。尽管时尚在变,但是这些原理却不变。他们是识别和预测时尚流行趋势的坚实基础。时尚流行的基本原理包括以下几条:

1.时尚的流行一般采取渐进的方式,很少采取突变的方式。时尚通常从一种风格逐渐地向另一种风格进化,是进化式的,而不是快速地变化。这一点经常可以从女裙长度的变化中得到体现。在一个季节中人们不希望裙子的长度有较大的变化。一般裙长要在几个季节甚至几年时间里缓慢地增加或减少。在20世纪50年代后期以及以后的10年里,裙子的长度开始以每年约1英寸的速度缩短,直至变成20世纪60年代后期的超短式样。在整个70年代,裙子的长度又逐渐增加。

2.消费者创造时尚。是消费者通过接受一种款式而抛弃另一种款式来决定流行的时尚,而不是设计师或制造商。尽管设计师、制造商、销售商可以促进或减缓新时尚的流行,但最终对时尚的接受与否还要取决于消费者。

3.价格不会影响时尚的流行。时尚的流行与否并不取决于价格。尽管一个新款式推出的价格会很高,但很快会有各种价格变化。一件向设计师定做的服装售价可能会高达几千美元,但是一旦此款式被仿制并以成衣批量生产,就会出现不同的价格以适合不同层次消费者的要

求。有时仿制品批量生产的速度十分之快,甚至会先与原设计的服装上市。尽管服装的修饰不同,使用的布料会有区别,做工也有差异,但服装的款式却基本上是相同的。

4.时尚的流行并不取决于商品促销活动。广告、时装表演、橱窗展示都不能售出顾客不愿购买的商品。尽管生产厂家与销售商通过广告和促销活动能推动销售,但他们不能决定消费者必须接受哪一种款式。但是,一旦一种流行时尚已经形成,促销活动的确能够推动这一时尚趋势的发展。

5.时尚流行的结果也常是多而溢。20世纪初法国著名高级时装设计师保罗波烈曾经说过:“所有的时尚流行的结果都是多而溢”。这一说法在今天也是正确的。一旦一种时尚达到其款式的顶峰,一种新的不同外观的时尚就会诞生。例如在20世纪60年代后期,妇女开始对蓬松的发行感到厌倦,开始最求新的形象。另外一个例子是20世纪80年代中期突出肩宽的时装外型。当垫肩开始使妇女看上去像橄榄球运动员时,过大垫肩的时尚就消失了 第三单元

你能想象一个学医的人最终竟成了一个著名的服装设计师吗?

一个天才时装设计师

如果你是二十世纪八十年代的一个事业有成的银行家或实业家,你身上穿的很可能是一套阿玛尼西装。在那个年代,以衣着代表其身份的人的衣橱里基本都有阿玛尼的服饰,阿玛尼西装成了那些年轻有为专业人士的象征。阿玛尼西装的设计风格将休闲装与正装的款式相融合,使东西方的文化交相辉映。在二十世纪八十年代,阿玛尼西装成了那些追求成功或者已经成功之人士的最有力的时尚代言物。阿玛尼西装的设计师具有与生俱来的设计天赋。 1934年,乔治?阿玛尼出生于意大利米兰附近的一个地方。他在医学院学习过两年,还做过短期的摄影师,之后步入时装界,在一家百货商店做采购员,但没多久他就展现出与生俱来的创作才能。没有受过正规训练的阿玛尼,在1964年受雇于意大利一个顶级设计工作室的时候,推出了他的第一个男装系列,然后他创立了自己的公司。1975年,阿玛尼的服装品牌第一次问世。

在阿玛尼的品牌问世之前,时装的选择不是局限于僵硬的正装,就是20世纪60年代休闲的、过分随意的嬉皮装。 阿玛尼设计的夹克外套宽松而有好看,被人们看成是很得人心的变化。当这个品牌受到女士欢迎时,阿玛尼开始设计女装。他的很多服饰的特点在于那种现在用他的名字命名的颜色, 即混合了淡棕色与灰色的“阿玛尼灰棕色”。

这些极具魅力的套装深受20世纪80年代年轻富有人士(雅皮士)的喜爱。当他设计的服装开始出现在好莱坞电影中时 —里查?基尔曾在《美国舞男》一片中穿着阿玛尼服饰,阿玛尼的名气开始如日中天。阿玛尼是一名不折不扣的艺术家,他的作品曾分别受邀于纽约博物馆和毕尔巴鄂的古根汉姆博物馆展出。阿玛尼在当下被看作是20世纪风格代表的大腕之一。

第四单元

人与颜色

人们一般谈论的颜色有两类:冷色和暖色。研究人员认为人有两种类型:一类人喜欢冷色调,一类人喜欢暖色调。

暖色有红色、橙色和黄色。如果色调温暖并且光线充足,人们就会很活跃。喜欢社交、愿意跟别人呆在一起的人偏爱红色。冷色包括绿色、蓝色和紫色。与暖色不同,这些颜色可以使人放松。在有冷色调的地方,人们往往很安静。那些喜欢独处的人常常偏爱蓝色。人们把颜色与不同的物体、情感和节日联系在一起。比如红色,它是火、热、血液与生命

的颜色,人们常说红色令人激动,给人活力,并将其与愤怒这类强烈的情感联系在一起。红色也用来标识危险,如停车信号和消防车就是红色的。与红色有关的节日有:国庆节和元旦。商人知道人们靠颜色来挑选产品。精明的商人清楚年轻人与老年人,男人和女人有不同的颜色喜好。

幼儿对物体颜色的反应先于对形状的反应。他们喜欢暖色,即:红、黄、橙色。随着年龄的增长,他们逐渐开始对物体的形状而不是颜色做出反应。不同种族和国家的成年人都喜欢蓝色,其次为红色,再次为绿色。总的来说,女人比男人更喜欢鲜艳的色彩。你喜欢的颜色甚至可能泄露你的秘密。

你最喜欢的颜色是什么?你喜欢黄色、橙色或红色吗?如果是这样,你肯定是一个乐观主义者,或是一位领导者,或是一个热爱生活、喜欢与人交往和让生活充满刺激的活跃分子。你喜欢灰色和蓝色吗?那你可能喜欢安静,比较害羞,宁可服从命令也不愿领导别人。你有悲观者的倾向,至少心理学家是这么说的。他们当然应该知道,因为他们曾认真地研究过颜色对人类的影响及颜色偏好的意义。在诸多事实中,他们曾提到:我们并不是在成长的过程中选择自己最喜欢的颜色,而是生来就有这种偏好。如果你碰巧喜欢褐色,你是一睁眼或至少一旦能看清周围就有此偏爱了。

毫无疑问,颜色的确影响心情。大多数人觉得呆在黄色的房间比呆在深绿色的房间心情更加舒畅,情绪更加放松;一件红色的衣服可以给最郁闷的冬日带来暖意和好心情。相反,黑色则使人感到压抑。伦敦附近泰晤士河上的一座黑色大桥在被重新漆成绿色之前,曾是当地几座大桥中自杀最多的一座。重漆之后,自杀者的数目立即急剧下降。如果大桥被漆成粉红色或浅蓝色的话,这个数目可能还会下降更多。

浅色和亮色不仅可以使人更愉快,还可以使人更积极。如果橙色取代黑色或用灰色来油漆机器的话,工人们会工作得更好,更努力,而且事故会减少,这已经成为一个确凿的事实。那么记住,在你情绪低落的时候,你总可以用一件新的衬衫或几听油漆使自己拥有快乐的一天。也要记住,你对朋友或敌人颜色的喜欢的发现会使你进一步了解他们。另外,不要忘了在你选择一双袜子或一个灯罩的时候,别人可能会猜出你的个性。

第五单元

你知道男性与女性舞蹈演员的差异吗?请读下去吧……

男女舞蹈演员的差异

女性舞蹈演员确实有超越男性舞蹈演员的优势,因为她们开始跳舞的年龄均早得多(7岁与17岁对比)。家庭的支持也许是一个因素。正如我们的调查,我们发现鼓励女儿去跳舞的家长明显多于鼓励儿子跳舞的家长(19%比3%)。

相反,男性舞蹈演员,只有当他们下决心成为职业舞蹈家时才会选择跳舞。百分之七十一的男性告诉我们,与一半稍多一点的女性相比(57%),他们从事专业跳舞是“非常”重要的。男性舞蹈演员也用了多得多的精力去追求这个目标(82%比59%)。令人遗憾地是,在舞蹈方面起步晚可能使得掌握技巧很难。当男性舞蹈演员的训练被耽误时,体形就成了阻碍他们胜出的第一要素(24岁与16岁对比)。

令人意外地是,女性在舞蹈方面早先的优势在她们接近就业时就似乎减小了。与男性相比,经济压力困扰了女性舞蹈演员,机遇的缺乏、家庭的责任、怀孕、年龄及有限的时间和(家庭的)支持。除了怀孕、机遇和时间外,罗列这些原因的女性舞蹈演员显然还有较多跳舞造成的损伤。由于训练不佳而妨碍了他们目标的演员们有着明显的表演焦虑问题。

与女性相比,男性找工作似乎较少有问题。更多的男性做了专业舞蹈演员工作(61%比22%),而且他们也更有可能获得专业演员的领舞地位(46%比18%)。女性舞蹈演员即使获得了领衔地位,男性做专职演员明显比女性更普遍(100%比42%)。

这些优势也影响着男性退休的年龄。男性表演的时间更长,平均起来,退休比女性舞蹈演员晚八年(40岁与32岁对比)。不过,舞蹈职业对男性和女性的确都延寿。

领舞演员退休明显比独舞或群舞演员晚。无论专业状态怎样,损伤对结束职业生涯也起着作用。有慢性腱鞘炎的演员要比没有这种损伤的演员早退休十一年。同样,脚伤也会导致过早地退休。

了解到大部分舞蹈演员(74%)退休会情感受挫,我们并不吃惊。但是只有百分之十三发现会出现经济问题。有趣地是,男性与女性舞蹈演员在处理这类问题时不同。

女性中,如果遇到退休情感不安,女性舞蹈演员会更加频繁地运用心理疗法(34%比4%),然而当她们遇到麻烦时,女性会在职业调换中心解决经济问题。

相反地,如果退休造成情感困难,男性舞蹈演员会对症下药(75%比0)。四分之三的演员(74%)在他们离开舞台生涯后会继续上课学习。

第六单元

许多艺术类学生很小的时候就开始学习画画,但很少有人知道怎样在一个两维平面展示一个三维物体。关键的技巧就是透视。

透 视

透视是一个视觉和虚幻上的现象,它可以分为线段透视和空气透视。

线段透视是当物体变得遥远而尺寸缩小时的视觉现象。以画面上的铁路线为例,平行线朝同一方向延伸,在地平线交会于一点,即消失点。

空气透视是画平面上的物体有前进或后退的虚幻现象。假如一幅画的远景是山,近景是树木,就很容易能理解这种虚幻现象。比较而言,那些靠近观赏者的物体,如树木,就会比处于远景的山轮廓更加清晰,对比更加强烈,色彩更加丰富艳丽。这些因素左右着色彩的明暗关系、纯度、色度,以及对比、冷暖和物体的轮廓等等。

西班牙的著名画家,维拉斯贵兹,是欧洲第一批注意到这种空气透视现象的画家之一。他发现被观察的单个物体,轮廓清晰,而其周围区域却模糊不清。他根据这一原理绘制了自己的肖像画。这是欧洲绘画的一大重要进步,但在中国,这一原理早在几百年前就运用到山水画中了。

画面世界不同于客观世界,就如同画面所代表的仅仅是一个视觉和虚幻的现象,而不是客观现实一样。要在一个两维平面上表现三维物体的空间后退,透视确实是一个美学上能够自足的体系。

注:空气透视:风景画中,通过对大气效果的描绘而获得的一种远近变化的错觉。透过大气,远处景物颜色渐淡,并因空气中湿度的大小而逐渐变冷或变蓝,这种想象表明一幅风景画的背景在轮廓及色彩上应比前景模糊些。(摘自《美术术语与技法词典》)

第七单元

无论是绘画、雕塑还是建筑,米开朗基罗对于西方艺术的影响都是极度深远的,16世纪的意大利著名的雕塑家中,没有一个人的雕塑风格形成不受他的影响。

米开朗基罗 ?博纳罗蒂

米开朗基罗?博纳罗蒂1475年生于意大利。是意大利文艺复兴时期,也就是艺术和科学最为繁荣的时期最重要的艺术家之一。12岁时成为一名声名显赫的画师的徒弟,但很快就开始学习雕塑。他受到了当时统治佛罗伦萨的罗伦佐.美第奇的器重和资助。在23岁时,米开朗基罗完成了他不凡的大理石雕像作品《哀悼基督》,体现出圣母玛丽亚抱着死去的基督痛

苦的情形。1501年,他开始创作宏伟的《大卫》,到1504年,这座雕像被放置在了市政厅维奇奥宫的前面,成为佛罗伦萨共和国替代美第奇家族的统治的象征。

米开朗基罗没有沿用前人表现大卫战胜敌人后将敌人头颅踩在脚下的场景,而是选择了大卫迎接战斗时的状态,因为他认为那才是大卫最为勇敢的时刻。

从1508年到1512年,米开朗基罗一直在从事他最著名的作品,梵蒂冈西斯廷教堂的天顶画的创作,尽管他总认为自己是雕塑家不是画家而极力反对为西斯廷教堂绘画。“在资助人的重压下我都无法活下去,更不用说画画了”。只有教皇尤利乌斯二世的权力才迫使他不情愿地独自完成了这幅世上最伟大的壁画。他用新鲜石膏做原料,在天顶上画出了圣经旧约故事中的9个场景,后来他又在西斯廷教堂的祭坛墙上完成了杰作《最后的审判》。

晚年的时候,米开朗基罗的兴趣更多的在建筑和诗歌上。1546年,他被任命为圣彼得大教堂的总建筑师并设计了教堂的圆顶,在他死后26年教堂才由其他建筑师完成

第八单元

齐白石是位多才多艺的艺术家。他对鸟、虾、昆虫的独特画法在于他抓住了这些动物的神。

伟大的艺术家白齐石

齐白石是中国最著名的现代画家之一。他的一生表明他的成功是勤奋加天才的结果。他出生于湖南省湘潭县一个农民家庭。他八岁上学,一年后因病辍学。他在家帮助家里放牛、砍柴, 还在农场上做些零碎活。十一岁时他被送去学做木匠。在师傅的指导下,他学做家具、雕刻装饰的木匠活。在做活期间结识了一些当地的文人。其中一名叫胡胜元的主动提出教他绘画吟诗。齐白石钻心致力于绘画、诗文、书法和篆刻。在这期间,他靠卖画为生。渐渐地人们都熟知他不仅是个木匠,更是位艺术家。在三十岁那年,他和几位年轻人创建了龙山诗社。 在1902到1916年间,齐白石五次在祖国各地游历。这不仅使他开阔了视野,还帮助他改进了自己的画技。1917年他定居北京。在这里,他认识了许多艺术家和学者并和陈师曾结为朋友。陈建议他不要一味地模仿前辈,而应创建自己独特的风格。齐接受了他的建议,决定改变自己的画技。他将自己创造性的画法和明、清的著名画家如徐渭、朱耷、石涛的画技以及民间艺术的技法融为一体。

经过多年的实践,齐白石形成了自己独特的艺术风格。他的画丰富多彩。他画的花鸟鱼虾以及昆虫让人赞叹不已。为了提高画虾的技艺,他曾在家里养虾,经常观察它们的活动。齐白石绘画既能用写意法也会用工笔法。当他用工笔画法画蜻蜓时,他能精细到翅膀里的静脉清晰可见。当他采用写意画法时只须寥寥几笔便使其跃然纸上。无论用哪种画法,蜻蜓都画的栩栩如生。让人称奇的是在他的一些作品中同时运用了两种画法。例如,在同一幅画中,工笔画法的昆虫和写意画法的花朵显得十分和谐,达到了天衣无缝的地步。

齐白石是位品德高尚的人。曾在清朝时,他拒绝了慈禧太后做事的差使。他还作画、吟诗,讽刺嘲弄那些腐败的官吏、贪婪的商人以及不知羞耻的卖国贼。在抗日战争时期,他拒绝将自己作品卖给日本官员。

第九单元

流行音乐”这个词即使从英语词汇中消失,它的影响将仍然存在。流行

音乐已经成为英国——以及美国——历史的一个组成部分。

流行音乐

“在英国和说英语的美国之间,不仅在文学方面,而且在流行艺术,特别是音乐方面,一直有着密切的接触和联系。第二世界大战前,美国的爵士音乐和布鲁士曾经流传到外国。在1950年代,他们又输出了摇摆舞曲。像普雷斯利这样的歌星,在英美两国,同样受到年轻人的崇拜。