English for Graduates (Paper A)
I. Listening Comprehension (20%)
Directions: In this part, you are going to listen to four passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passages and the questions will be read only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Then mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.
1. A. He read a lot of books on management.
B. He made every step safe enough.
C. He prepared himself well beforehand.
D. He had knowledge for the next phase.
2. A. news reporterB. American dream
C. lucky boyD. poor child
3. A. generals B. committees C. armies D. schools
4. A. reading different books B. attending seminars
C. listening to audiotapesD. learning on one?s own
5. A. face-to-face contact B. eyeball-to-eyeball contact
C. person-to-person contact D. call-to-call contact
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage.
6. A. More and more people take up the habit of smoking.
B. There are more smoking women than smoking men in the USA.
C. It is good news that more people have given up smoking.
D. The U.S. has more smoking people than any other country.
7. A. age, income and education
B. age, sex and income
C. occupation, income and sex
D. occupation, income and education
8. A. City people are less likely to smoke.
B. People in rural areas are more likely to smoke.
C. Men with higher incomes tend to smoke.
D. Well –educated men with high incomes are generally less likely to smoke.
9. A. The situation is quite the same for women as for men.
B. Better-educated women are likely to smoke heavily.
C. There are more women smokers with low incomes.
D. Women with higher incomes and higher education do not tend to smoke.
10. A. The picture about the teenage smokers is similar to that of women smokers.
B. The situation among teenagers is quite the same with men.
C. High school students are more likely to smoke than college students.
D. Farmers? children tend to smoke more.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
11. A. crying one?s goods in the street B. signs with pictures
C. wall paintings D. wall signs
12. A. signs with pictures B. tools over doors
C. wall paintings D. symbols
13. A. Because they are most recently developed.
B. Because they can be understood by those who can neither read nor write.
C. Because they are cheap and fast.
D. Because they can be heard everywhere in a country.
14.A. Only some large companies can afford radio commercials.
B. Outdoor advertisements make up a small proportion of modern advertising.
C. Ads printed in newspapers are one of the most popular forms of advertising.
D. The ads called car trucks are almost part of our life.
15. A. modern advertisingB. development of advertising
C. origin of advertising D. significance of advertising
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
16. A. An educational institution that is open to anyone who wants to receive higher education.
B. An educational institution that conducts courses by ((来自于:www.hN1C.coM 唯才 教育 网:武汉大学研究生英语免修条件)means of television, radio and correspondence courses.
C. An educational institution that is free of charge to all the students.
D. An educational institution that conducts its courses through open discussions.
17. A. They laughed at it.B. They doubted whether it would work.
C. They supported it. D. They rejected it.
18. A. Because of its serious financial problems.
B. Because of the lack of support from the government and the public.
C. Because of the lack of qualified teachers.
D. Because of the limited number of courses it could conduct.
19. A. Seminars and lectures open to less advanced students are held from time to time.
B. Short-term training courses are organized in different cities across the country.
C. Over a dozen study centers have been set up all over the country.
D. Special revision programs are broadcast on radio and TV.
20. A. The Open University is the best form of higher education.
B. When it was first on the air only a few people thought the Open University would succeed.
C. British people prefer the Open University to other universities.
D. The Open University is very good for those who want to strike a balance between further
education, career and family.
II. Vocabulary (25%)
Directions: There are 25 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the answer sheet with a single line through the center.
21. Cash flows should be managed to ________ the return from cash received and to minimize the cost of finance on conditions for its own uses.
A. choose B. spend C. expand D. optimize
22. Teachers? unions attacked the plans as ________ the skills and work of early year teachers, and creating a two-tier profession.
A. praising B. promoting C. undervaluing D. developing
23. The government could then instruct all banks not to push companies into default and not to dispose of any ________.
A. collateral B. corporationC. debtD. exchange
24. Fourthly, a successful terminal at Stratford would inevitably and inexorably ________ on the Lea Valley regional park and reduce leisure facilities.
A. increase B. encroach C. stepD. ride
25. The evening air had its accustomed November nip, but the groups making their way from Celtic Crescent were ________ to it.
A. ignorant B. imperviousC. resented D. responsive
26. As far as I am concerned, it is the only body that represents the prison officers, who work under great ________.
A. pressB. backfire C. duress D. screen
27. Margate is sure that the scientific and technological ________ that has been developed is real and extremely valuable.
A. synergy B. formation C. energy D. match
28. They suggest therefore that greater emphasis be given to housing ________ in evaluating relative deprivation.
A. termination B. removal C. provision D. tenure
29. Are you sure that my staying here won?t be an/a ________ into your domestic affairs?
A. intention B. trouble C. threatD. intrusion
30. She remained there until last night when an ambulance took her to ________ with a family in nearby Newton.
A. discover B. revitalize C. recuperate D. reformulate
31. Sunlight streamed into the church and through the stained glass windows, and a smell of grass and flowers ________ the air.
A. flowed B. permeated C. penetrated D. indulged
32. Loss of license contact is a real ________ to potential traders in smuggled cigarettes.
A. deterrent B. detailC. detain D. determine
33. As these problems multiply and ________ resources, the range of options available to the organization increasingly narrows.
A. deplete B. decrease C. lessen D. formulate
34. For years, frequent flooding eventually ________ all traces of the community that used to live there.
A. killedB. released C. obliterated D. measured
35. Even the increase proposed will put pressure on Congress to hold down other spending or dip into funds ________ for Social Security.
A. remarked B. earmarked C. rebound D. reduced
36. Members of extreme right wing parties are completely opposed to the ________ of blacks into
white South African society.
A. combination B. formulationC. integration D. segregation
37. Nevertheless, to conceive of parents as utterly static in the child?s psychological life is likely to become the ________ of the picture grossly.
A. distortion B. reflection C. representation D. confusion
38. Clinton also asked Glickman to report back within 30 days with recommendations to help the ________ of debt problems afflicting cattle producers.
A. involvement B. release C. alleviation D. reflection
39. The Piscataway school district in New Jersey had to dismiss one high school business teacher both by the government and local authorities.
A. inflation B. provision C. concentration D. constraints
40. By setting up such a system yourself, you are potentially ________ any security systems your company has in place.
A. providingB. alleviating C. promotingD. circumventing
41. The policy by EU that imposes serious constraints on textile imports from China will definitelythe bilateral trade in other areas.
A. widen B. thwart C. recoverD. complete
42. Friction between the generations is ________ when younger staff grasp the new idea and their creativity is suddenly released.
A. widened B. exacerbatedC. recovered D. competitive
43. Many Americans who are learning Chinese think that the term “Lao Wai” is somehow an insult, and in fact the term “Lao Wai” doesn?t have a negative _______ in Chinese.
A. position B. intention C. extension D. connotation
44. Hey Kissinger was also ________ and frustrated by the Communists during his secret negotiations with them.
A. fooled B. overjoyed C. confronted D. confounded
45. Because of their past crimes, everything they do now will be subject to ________.
A. utilityB. quality C. scrutiny D. honesty
III. Reading Comprehension (20%)
Directions: Read the following passages and choose the best answer to each question.
The heart is made up almost entirely of muscle. It is a large, tough organ, about the size of a clenched fist. It is positioned on the centre line of the body, about halfway down the chest, just beneath the breastbone. It is tilted so that the lower end points toward the left.
The heart is basically a pump, which forces blood through a network of tubes, or blood vessels, throughout the whole body. Each of the billions of living cells that make up the body needs oxygen and food in order to live, and these are supplied by the blood. The circulation of the blood consists of two parts. First the blood is pumped from the heart, around the body, and is returned to the heart. At this stage oxygen has been used up, and waste materials like carbon dioxide (CO2) have entered the bloodstream. But, instead of being pumped back around the body, the blood is
now pumped to the lungs, where oxygen is replaced and CO2, removed. Then the blood is pumped back to the heart and around the body to begin the cycle again.
A heart that works well can operate for sixty to a hundred years or more. The heart is made up of four distinct chambers. The entire four-chamber pump is surrounded by a protective layer called the pericardium, which contains a lubricating liquid. The four chambers of the heart consist of two upper chambers and two lower chambers. The upper chambers are thin walled and they receive blood returning to the heart from the large veins of the body. These chambers are called the left atrium and the right atrium. The lower chambers of the heart are called the left and right ventricles (心室). They are much larger and very much more muscular than the atria. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body. The left and right sides of the heart are divided by a tough wall called the septum. This thick wall separates the blood which is to be pumped to the lungs from the blood which will go to the rest of the body. Blood is kept moving in the proper direction by a series of valves. These are leathery flaps which are forced open by the pressure of blood and then shut to stop it draining back.
It is very important that “fresh” or oxygenated blood is kept separate from “stale” or deoxygenated blood that has already been passed around the body. Blood returning to the heart from the body, laden with CO2, and containing little oxygen, first enters the right atrium（心房）, at the top of the heart. The atrium contracts gently, squeezing the blood through a one-way valve into the right ventricle(心室), immediately below. The right ventricle contracts powerfully, pumping the blood along arteries to the lungs, where oxygen is replenished and CO2 is removed. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium, and is in turn pumped through another valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle is the most powerful part of the heart?s pump mechanism, and when it contracts, it forces blood all around the body.
To summarize, the blood circulation passes from the heart to lungs, and back to the heart. Then it travels around the body, and back to the heart once more.
Occasionally, a baby is born with a small hole in the septum dividing the right and left sides of the heart, allowing oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to mix. Surgery is needed to correct this “hole in the heart”.
As we age, body organs begin to wear out. Sometimes an organ wears out very rapidly, while the rest of the body is still relatively healthy. When this happens, a replacement, or transplant operation is sometimes possible. Transplants are never easy, as the body usually tends to attack or reject any strange material put into it.
Heart valves sometimes become damaged by valve heart diseases which are unfortunately quite common and before the advent of open heart surgery they were very difficult to treat. Heart valves may even be defective in a newborn baby. This prevents proper blood circulation, and usually can be corrected by replacing the damaged valve with a plastic or metal substitute which will be accepted by the body without causing reaction in the tissue of the heart. The valve replacements are necessary to impose a greater control over blood flow from one chamber to another and from the heart into the arterial system. Early valve replacements are of mechanical variety. One kind of early artificial heart valve is a simple “ball in a cage” or tilting disc device which will open and close as the heart beats so as to allow blood to flow under near normal rheological (流变) conditions.
Sometimes the heart muscle is too badly diseased to pump properly, and in rare cases, a heart transplant may be considered. This involves replacing all or part of the heart with one taken from