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高三复习英语句子成分

时间:2016-04-21 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:高三英语复习资料(句子成分&基本句型)

高三英语复习资料 (08/2013)

—— 英语句子种类、句子成分及简单句基本句型

一、句子种类 1.按句子的用途可分四种

1)陈述句(肯定、否定) He is six years old. / She didn't hear of you before.

2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意) Do they like skating? / How old is he?

Is he six or seven years old? / Mary can swim, can't she?

3)祈使句Be careful, boys. / Don't talk in class.

4)感叹句How clever the boy is! / What an interesting book it is!

2.按句子的结构可分三种

1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)

He often reads English in the morning.

Tom and Mike are American boys.

She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.

2)并列句复合句:由并列连词(and, but, or等)或分号(;),把两个或两个以上的简单句在

一起构成

You help him and he helps you.

The future is bright; the road is tortuous (曲折的).

3)主从复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子

复合句包含:名词性从句(主语/宾语/表语/同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句

The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

二、简单句的五种基本句型

1. 主语+谓语+表语: He is a student.

2. 主语+谓语: We work.

3. 主语+谓语+宾语: Hey bought a dictionary.

4. 主语+谓语+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语): My father bought me a car.

5. 主语+谓语+复合宾语(宾语+宾补):Tom made the baby laugh.

三、句子成分

1. 定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分

2. 主要成分及次要成分:

主要:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate) 次要:表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement) 同位语 (appositive) Examples: (主语)

(谓语)

(表语)

(宾语)

(定语)

状语)

(宾补)

(同位语)

练习:

一、判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句 1.We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon.

2.The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.

3.There is a chair in this room.

4.My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the

evening.

5.He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.

6.He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.

7.Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.

8.What he said at the meeting is very important.

9.The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.

10.Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.

二、指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分:

1. depend on the weather.

2. People’s standards of living 5. I’ll return the book 8. There are many film I won’t stop you from doing it.

三、用简单句翻译下列句子

1. 这是我的妈妈。

2. 她是一个普通的家庭妇女。

3. 刚才她坐在那儿。

4. 她在看电视。

5. 我感到意外。

6. 她在哭泣。

7. 什么事才能使她高兴?

8. 我给她讲了一个滑稽可笑的故事。

9. 她情不自禁地笑了起来。

四、语篇练习 (尽量用5个句子表达全部的内容)

假如你和你的好朋友约翰之间曾经出现误会,请根据以下内容,写一篇短文陈述产生误会的原因、经过和结果。

上个月我们进行了一次数学测试。其有一道数学题很难,除了我外没人能做出来。我的好朋友约翰想抄我的答案,他扔给我一张纸条,但我没理睬。这次测试以后我们吵了一架,从此我们之间存在很大的隔阂。我们之间一定有误会,后来我向他解释为什么拒绝他的原因,最终我们有成为了好朋友。

高三英语复习资料 (08/2013)

—— 英语句子种类、句子成分及简单句基本句型

练习答案

一、判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句

简单句:第1、3、4、9、10句

并列句:第5、7句

复合句:第2、6、8句

二、指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分:

1.主语 2.谓语 3.表语4.宾语 5.宾语 6.宾语 7.定语 8.定语 9.宾补 10.状语

三、用简单句翻译下列句子

1. This is my mother. 2. She is an ordinary housewife.

3. My mother was sitting there.4. She was watching TV.

5. I felt surprised. 6. She was weeping.

7. What could make her happy?8. I told her a very funny story.

9. She couldn’t help laughing.

四、语篇练习

We had a math test last month and there happened to be a very difficult problem in the test. But nobody could work out the problem except me. My best friend John wanted to copy my answer and he threw me a piece of paper to ask me to show my answer to him, but I ignored it. So after the test we had a quarrel and then we had a misunderstanding. Finally I explained to him why I refused to give him my answer in the test and we became good friends again.

篇二:高中英语句子成分分析讲义+练习-3.11

句子成分(Members of a Sentence)

什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中,词与词之间有一定的组合关系,按照不同的关系,可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。

英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。

英语五种基本句型列式如下:

一: S V (主+谓)

二: S V P (主+系+表)

三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型 一:S V (主+谓)

主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如boy),主格代词(如you),动词不定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家!

谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come.

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。

S │ V (不及物动词)

1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。

2. The moon │rose. 月亮升起了。

3. The universe │remains.宇宙长存。

4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。

5. Who │cares? 管它呢?

6. What he said │does not matter.他所讲的没有什么关系。

7. They │talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。

8. The pen │writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。

基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表)

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。感官动词多可用作联系动词:look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/难闻

S │V(是系动词)│ P

1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。

2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。

3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。

4. Everything │looks │different. 一切看来都不同了。

5. He │is growing │tall and strong.他长得又高又壮

6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。

7. Our well │has gone │dry.我们井干枯了。

8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。

There be 结构: There be 表示‘存在有’。这里的there没有实际意义,不可与副词‘there那里’混淆。

此结构后跟名词,表示‘(存在)有某事物’

试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。)/前一个there无实意,后一个there为副词‘那里’。

基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them等

S │V(及物动词)│ O

1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案?

2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。

3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。

4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。

5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。

6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!"

7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。

8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give给,pass递,bring带,show显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如:Give me a cup of tea,please.

强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:

Show this house to Mr.Smith.

若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:Bring it to me,please.

S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物)

1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。

2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。

3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。

4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。

5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片

6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。

7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。

8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。

基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。

宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。

名词/代词宾格 + 名词

The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士.

名词/代词宾格 + 形容词

New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松.

名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语

I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作.

名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式

The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户.名词/代词宾格 + 分词

I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路.

S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补)

1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。

2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色

3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。

4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。

5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想?

6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去

7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。

8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。我们称之为:定语、状语

一、 定语:定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰some,any,every,no构成的复合不定代词时,(如:something、nothing);或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。

形容词作定语:

The little boy needs a blue pen.(little修饰名词boy;blue修饰名词pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。

Tom is a handsome boy./Tom是个英俊的男孩。

There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。

数词作定语相当于形容词:

Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。

The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。

There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。

代词或名词所有格作定语:

His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要Tom的钢笔。

His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。

There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有Tom家的两个男孩。

介词短语作定语:

The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。

There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个9岁的,三个10岁的男孩。名词作定语:

The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。

It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。

There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。副词作定语:

The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。

The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是Tom。

不定式作定语:

The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。

The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。

There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。

分词(短语)作定语:

The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。

The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。

There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。

定语从句:

The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。

The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。

There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。

二、状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目的等。

状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句首;修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、

目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之前;一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副词状语通常位于be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,动词之前。

有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注意,如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成‘男孩喊教室里的女孩‘(此时in the classroom为girl的定语),也可以理解为‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’(此时in the classroom为地点状语),最好写作‘In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.\'

副词(短语)作状语:

The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢笔。(程度状语)

The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩非常需要他母亲买的那支钢笔。(宾语较长则状语前置)

The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。(程度状语)

The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,now,needs a pen./男孩现在需要一支钢笔。(时间状语)

介词短语作状语:In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。(地点状语)

Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语)

On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语)

分词(短语)作状语:

He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。(表示伴随状态)

Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen./因为不得不完成作业,男孩需要一支笔。(原因状语)

Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./(因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐在那儿。(原因状语)

不定式作状语:

The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。(目的状语) To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested in business./为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业很有兴趣.

名词作状语:

Come this way!/走这条路!(方向状语)

状语从句:

时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句 、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句

三、同位语:同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置定语。如:

We students should study hard. / (students是we的同位语,都是指同一批‘学生’)

篇三:2009届高三英语句子系列复习一(句子成分和基本句型)

2009届高三英语总复习之句子系列复习(1) 一、句子成分 主语(subject): 句子说明的人或事物。 The sun rises in the east. (名词) He likes dancing.(代词) Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) Seeing is believing. (动名词) To see is to believe. (不定式) What he needs is a book. (主语从句) It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. (It形式主语,主语从句是真正主语) 谓语(predicate): 说明主语的动作、状态和特征。 We study English.He is asleep.宾语:1)动作的承受者-----动宾 I like China. (名词) He hates you. (代词) How many do you need? We need two. (数词) We should help the old and the poor.I enjoy working with you. (动名词) I hope to see you again. (不定式)Did you write down what he said? (宾语从句)2) 介词后的名词、代词和动名词-----介宾 Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks. 3) 双宾语-----间宾(指人)和直宾(指物) He gave me a book yesterday. Give the poor man some money. 定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 Miss Yang is a chemistry teacher.(名词) He is our friend. (代词) We belong to the third world.(数词) He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容词) The man over there is my old friend.(副词) The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介词) The boys playing football are in Class 2.(现在分词) The trees planted last year are growing well now.(过去分词) I have an idea to do it well.(不定式) You should do everything that I do. (定语从句) 状语:用来修饰v., adj., adv., or 句子。 表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式、让步和伴随。 (以下例句按上述顺序排列) I will go there tomorrow. The meeting will be held in the meeting room. The meat went bad because of the hot weather. He studies hard to learn English well. He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. I like some of you

very much. If you study hard, you will pass the exam. He goes to school by bike.Though he is young, he can do it well. The teacher came in, with a book in his hand. 宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 We elected him monitor.(名词) We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名) We will make them happy. (形容词) We found nobody in. ( 副词 ) Please make yourself at home. 介词短语) Don’t let him do that. (省to不定式) His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (带to不定式) Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词)主补:对主语的补充。 He was elected monitor. She was found singing in the next room. He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 表语(predicative): 系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。He is a teacher. (名词)Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代词) Five and five is ten. (数词) He is asleep.(形容词)His father is in. (副词)The picture is on the wall. ( 介词短语) My watch is gone / missing / lost.(形容词化的分词) To wear a flower is to say I’m poor, I can’t buy a ring. (不定式) The question is whether they will come. (表语从句) (常见的连系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look(看起来), feel(摸起来,smell(闻起来), taste(尝、吃起来), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感觉) ...等等)It sounds a good idea.The sound sounds strange. Her voice sounds sweet.Tom looks thin. The food smells delicious. The food tastes good. The door remains open.Now I feel tired. 二、Exercises: (一)分析下列句子成分:

1. Our school is not far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you3. All of us considered him honest. 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 5. He broke a piece of glass.6. He made it clear that he would leave the city. 7. I love you more than her, child. 8. Trees turn green when spring comes. 9. They pushed the door open. 10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night.11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends.12. All the students think highly of his teaching. 13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 14. He asked us to sing an English song.15. Don't get nervous; help yourself to what you like. 16.(来自:www.Hn1c.cOm 唯 才教 育网:高三复习英语句子成分) We will make our school more beautiful. 17. He didn't come. That is why he didn't know. 18. She showed us her many of her pictures. 19. The old man lives a lonely life. 20. I’ll get my hair cut tomorrow. 21. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town. 22. The cars made in Japan are better than those in Germany. 23. There are so many people in the hall that it's hard for me to find him. 24. No matter how difficult the task may be, we must fulfill it this month. 25. Go back where you came from. 26. We must do whatever the people want us to do. 27. At last he got home, tired and hungry.28. Would you please pass me the cup?

29. Mary handed her homework to the teacher.30. Do you know the latest news about him?

(二)请说出下列短文各句中的句子成分:

I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden.

(三)给下列短文加上标点符号:

During a bullfight a drunk suddenly wandered into the middle of the ring the crowd began to shout but the drunk didn't realized the danger the bull was busy with the matador (斗牛士) at the time but it suddenly caught sight of the drunk who was wearing a red cap the bull forgot all about the matador and rushed to the drunk the crowd suddenly grew quiet the drunk however seemed quite sure of himself when the bull got close him he stepped aside to let it pass the crowd burst into cheers and the drunk bowed by this time however three men had come into the ring and they quickly dragged the drunk outside even the bull seemed to fell sorry for him for it looked on sympathetically until the drunk was out of the way before once more drew its attention to the matador. 三、简单句的基本句型 1. 主语 + 谓语 本结构是由“主语+不及物动词(词组)”构成, 常用来表示主语的动作。如,

She came. / My head aches. / The sun rises. 该句型的主语可有修饰语---定语,如,The red sun rises. 谓语可有修饰语---状语,如,The red sun rises in the east. 2. 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。宾语可以是名词、代词、数词,动名词、动词不定式或词组、the +形容词、分词以及从句等。如, She likes English. The young should take good care of the old. 3. 主语 + 连系动词 + 表语 本结构主要用以说明主语的特征,类属,状态,身份等。连系动词有: (1)表示特征和存在状态的 be, seem, feel, appear, look, smell, taste, sound等; (2)表示状态延续的 remain, stay, keep, continue, stand等; (3)表示状态变化的 become, get, turn, go, run, fall, come, grow等。 She is happy. / He fell off his bike and got hurt. / His advice proved (to be) right. 4. 主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 常跟双宾语的及物动词有: (需借助to的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, 等; (需借助for 的)buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare,等。 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She gave John a book.= She bought a book for me. 5. 主语 + 谓语(及物动词)+ 宾语 + 宾语补足语 此结构中的宾语与宾语补足语之间存在有内在逻辑上的主谓关 She makes her mother angry. The teacher asked me to read the passage. 6. There be 句型 此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达某地存在有,它其实是倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际意义。Be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致,有时态和情态变化。如,现在有there is / are …过去有there was / were…将来有there will be…/ there is / are going to be... 现在已经有there has / have been…可能有 there might be...肯定有 there must be …/ there must have been...