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适合高中生背的英文好句子好篇章

时间:2016-04-16 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:高中生必须要背诵的英文句子

高中生必须要背诵的英文句子

1. According to…依照/根据…….

According to the newspaper,it's a great movie.

根据报纸说,这是一部很棒的电影.

2. Am I allowed to…我可以……吗

Am I allowed to introduce our new manager Mr. Anderson to all of you

请允许我介绍我们的新经理安德森先生给大家,好吗

3. As matter of fact,…实际上……,…….

As matter of fact,I don't agree with you.

实际上,我不大同意你的看法.

4.As far as I'm concerned/…就我而言,…….

As far as I'm concerned, | think we should pay more attention to the safety of

schoolchildren.

就我而言,我认为我们应该更关注在校儿童的安全问题.

5.As far as I know,...据我所知,…….

As far as l know,he is not coming,b

适合高中生背的英文好句子好篇章

ut l may be wrong.

据我所知,他不打算来,但我或许会弄错.

6.As I just mentioned...正如我刚才提到过的,…….

As I just mentioned, nobody should drop out of school unless they believe they face the opportunity of a lifetime. And even then they should reconsider.

正如我刚才提到过的,任何人都不应该辍学,除非他们相信他们面临着一生中难得的机会,尽管那样,他们还需反复思量. [reconsider..重新考虑]

7. In my opinion,…在我看来,…….

In my opinion, he is not the right person for this position. 在我看来,他不是这个职位的合适人选.

8. As is known to us all, ... 众所周知,……

As is known to us all, Hong Kong is one of the financial centers of Asia.

众所周知,香港是亚洲金融中心之一.

9. As long as...只要….

As long as we work together, we can make the impossible possible.

只要我们一起努力,我们就能把不可能变为可能.

10.But for...若不是因为……./如果没有…….

But for your generous help, we couldn't have finished the work so soon.

如果没有你的鼎力相助,我们不可能这么快完成工作的.

11.Can you believe (that)... 你相信……吗

Can you believe (that) this excellent song was composed by a high school student 你相信这首美妙的歌曲是出自一个高中生之手吗

12.Can you imagine... 你能想像……吗

Can you imagine how she lived through all these difficulties

你能想像她是怎么捱过种种困难的吗

13.Could you please explain... 你能解释一下……吗

Could you please explain why you didn't come to the meeting yesterday你能解释一下为什么昨天没来开会吗

14.Can't we... 难道我们不能……吗

Can't we just live in today, without the worries of tomorrow or the regrets of the past难道我们不能活在当下,不为将来担忧,不为过去叹息吗 [绝对六星级]

15. Could you do me a favor and... 能否请你帮我一个忙…

Could you do me a favor and give this present to Hilary for her birthday能否请你帮我一个忙,把这份生日礼物交给希拉里

16.Do you by any chance know... 你(碰巧)知道……吗

Do you by any chance know what time the movie begins 你知道电影什么时候开始吗

17. Do you enjoy doing... 你喜欢做……吗

Do you enjoy having a few friends around talking and laughing?

你喜欢几个朋友聚在一起有说有笑吗

18. Do you happen to know... 你(碰巧)知道……吗

Do you happen to know how I can get to Times Square 你知道怎么去时代广场吗

19. Do you have any good ways to... 你有没有……的好办法

Do you have any good ways to promote our new product 你有没有什么推销我们新产品的好办法

20. Did you know (that)... 你知道……吗

Did you know (that) Daniel has won the first prize of the writing contest?你知道丹尼尔得了写作比赛的第一名吗

长.

21. Do you know if /whether... 你知道是否……

Do you know if there are any apartments available in this area你知道这一带还有公寓出租吗

22. Do/ Would you mind doing... 你介意做……吗

Do you mind giving me a glass of water and some aspirin 给我一杯水和一些阿斯匹林,好吗

23. Do/ Would you mind if... 如果……你是否介意

Do you mind if I ask you a few questions 你介意我问你几个问题吗

24. Do you realize (that)... 你有没有意识到……

Do you realize (that) your parents really care about you? 你有没有意识到你的父母很关心你

25. Do you think it is possible to... 你认为……可能吗

Do you think it is possible to solve the problem overnight!一夜之间解决这个问题你觉得有可能吗

26. Do you think it necessary to... 你认为有必要……吗

Do you think it necessary to ask for official permission for the event to take place你觉得进行这项活动,有必要得到正式的批准吗

27. ...doesn't make sense. 没有道理/没有意义/不清楚

What you say doesn't make sense. I don't agree with you.你说的话没有道理.我不同意你的看法.

28. Don't be afraid of... 不要害怕…….

Don't be afraid of losing face. 不要害怕丢脸.

29. Don't take it for granted that... 别认为……理所当然.

Don't take it for granted that your parents should support you all your life.别以为你父母养你一辈子是天经地义的事.

30. Don't waste time doing... 不要浪费时间做…….

Don't waste time learning a lot of useless words in isolation. 不要浪费时间孤立地学习没有用的单词.学习英语单词最好的方法就是脱口而出尽量多的地道句子

31. Don't you think that... 难道你不认为……吗

Don't you think that the gap between rich and poor is getting wider

难道你不认为贫富差距越来越大了吗 [五星级精品句]

32. Excuse me for... 请原谅我…….

Excuse me for interrupting, but I have something urgent to say.

很抱歉打断你,但我有急事要说.

[ urgent n. 紧急的;急迫的]

33. For one thing,... For another,... 一方面……;另一方面…….

For one thing, these shoes don't suit you. For another, they are too expensive.

一方面,这双鞋子并不适合你;另一方面,这太贵了.

34. From my point of view,... 在我看来,……

From my point of view, Crazy English is the most effective way to learn English. 在我看来,"疯狂英语"是学习英语最有效的方法.

35. From where I stand,... 从我的立场来说,…….

From where I stand we should support him no matter what happens.

依我看,无论发生什么事,我们都应该支持他.

36. Generally speaking,... 总的来说,…….

Generally speaking, people like to hear compliments from others.

总的来说,人们都喜欢听到别人的称赞.

37. Hardly...when... 一……就……. [倒装句型]

Hardly had she begun speaking when there was a knock on the door. 她刚开始说话就听到敲门声.

38. Have you considered doing... 你有没有考虑过做……

Have you considered going abroad to study 你有没有考虑过出国留学

39. Have you decided... 你决定好……了吗

Have you decided where to spend your summer vacation 你决定好去哪里过暑假了吗

40. Have you ever been to... 你曾经去过……吗

Have you ever been to Disneyland 你有没有去过迪斯尼乐园

41. Have you thought about/of ... 你有没有想过……

Have you thought about setting up your own business 你想过自己做生意吗

42. Haven't you heard of ... 难道你没听说过……吗

Haven't you heard of Crazy English established by Li Yang

难道你没听说过李阳创立的疯狂英语吗

43. How are you getting on / along with... ……进展如何/与……相处如何

How are you getting on / along with your English study 你的英语学习进展如何

44. How are you going to... 你打算如何……

How are you going to celebrate your graduation 你打算如何庆祝你毕业

45. How does...sound ……(听起来)怎么样

How does making our appointment at 8 sound 我们把约会定在8点如何

46. How long will it take you to... ……要用多长时间

How long will it take you to recite such a passage 你背诵这么一段文章要多长时间

47. How should I... 我该如何……

How should I tell him the bad news 我该如何告诉他这个坏消息

48. I absolutely agree with... …我完全同意…….

Sure, I absolutely agree with your point. 当然,我绝对同意你的观点.

49. I'm grateful for... 我对……特别感激.

I'm grateful for your timely help. 非常感谢你及时的帮助.

[timely adj.及时的]

50. I am planning to... …我打算…….

I am planning to travel around China. 我打算环游中国.

51. I am very pleased to have this opportunity to... 我很高兴有机会…….

I am very pleased to have this opportunity to stand here and give you a speech. 我很高兴有机会站在这里为你们演讲.

52. I apologize for... 我为……道歉.

I apologize for leaving you alone. 很抱歉把你一个人留下.

53. I believe (that)... …我相信…….

I believe that we can conquer cancer totally some day. 我相信我们总有一天能够完全战胜癌症.

54. I believe we should... 我认为我们应该…….

I believe we should work together to protect our environment. 我认为我们应该携手保护环境.

55. I can't imagine... 我无法想像…….

I can't imagine what my life would be like if I were disabled.

我无法想像如果我身患残疾,我的生活会怎样.

56. I can't stand it when... 我无法忍受…….

I can't stand it when people talk with their mouth full. 我无法忍受别人说话的时候满嘴食物.

57.I didn't expect to...我没想到…….

I didn't expect to receive such a pretty card from him. 我没想到能收到他寄来的那么漂亮的卡片.

58. I didn't mean to... 我不是有意…….

I didn't mean to offend you. 我不是有意要冒犯你的. [offend n.冒犯;得罪]

59. I didn't realize... 我不知道…….俄没意识到…….

I didn't realize how much this meant to you. 我没意识到这对你意义有多大.

60. I (don't) feel like... 我(不)想…….

1) I feel like going rock climbing with you this weekend. 这周末我想和你一起去攀岩.

2) I really don't feel like going to the movies tonight. 我今晚真的不想去看电影.

篇二:[精品]高中必背篇目中名句难句子翻译

高中必背篇目中名句难句子翻译

高中必背篇目中名句难句子翻译

1.

子曰:智者不惑,仁者不忧,勇者不惧。

【译文】

孔子说:聪明人不会迷惑,有仁德的人不会忧愁,勇敢的人不会畏惧。

【评析】

在儒家传统道德中,智、仁、勇是重要的三个范畴。《礼记·中庸》说:知、仁、勇,三者天下之达德也。孔子希望自己的学生能具备这三德,成为真正的君子

2.子曰:道不同,不相为谋

【译文】 孔子说:志向不同,不在一起谋划共事。

3.志士仁人,无求生以害仁,有杀身以成仁

译文:重点字词

不应该

应该

仁德

害损害

成 成全

凡有志气和有道德的人,没有哪个是为了求生而失德的,只有以生命来争取真理的。 孔子的思想核心是仁字,仁爱、有思想的。

相似意思的词语:物以类聚,人以群分

近朱者赤近墨者黑

4. 子曰:饭疏食饮水,曲肱而枕之,乐亦在其中矣。不义而富且贵,于我如浮云。 译文:孔子说:吃粗粮,喝白水,弯着胳膊当枕头,乐趣也就在这中间了。用不正当的手段得来的富贵,对于我来讲就像是天上的浮云一样。

5. 昔人已乘黄鹤去,此地空余黄鹤楼。

翻译:传说中的仙人早乘黄鹤飞去,这地方只留下空荡的黄鹤楼。 黄鹤一去不复返,白云千载空悠悠。

翻译:飞去的黄鹤再也不能复返了,唯有悠悠白云徒然千载依旧。 晴川历历汉阳树,芳草萋萋鹦鹉洲。

翻译:汉阳晴川阁的碧树历历在目,鹦鹉洲的芳草长得密密稠稠, 日暮乡关何处是,烟波江上使人愁。

翻译:时至黄昏不知何处是我家乡?面对烟波渺渺大江令人发愁!

6.吾十五有志于学,三十而立,四十不惑,五十而知天命,六十耳顺,七十从心所欲,不逾矩。

翻译:孔子说:我十五岁时开始立志学习;三十岁时能自立于世;四十岁时遇事就不迷惑;五十岁时懂得了什么是天命;六十岁时能听得进不同的意见;到了七十岁时才能达到随心所欲,想怎么做便怎么做,也不会超出规矩。

7.往者不可谏,来者犹可追 谏

挽回

译文:已往的事情不可挽回,未来的却还来得及。

8.曾子说:士不可以不弘毅,任重而道远。

翻译:弘是宽广之意,毅是强忍之意,弘毅指的是宽广、坚忍的品质、态度,这是完成学业必须具有的精神状态。

读书人须有远大的抱负和坚强的意志,因为他对社会责任重大,要走的路很长。

弘毅:抱负远大,意志坚强。对一个想要有所作为的人来说,远大的抱负、坚强的意志,是缺一不可的。

9.【仰之弥高,钻之弥坚】语见《论语·子罕》。

原是颜渊称赞孔子之语。意思是老师之道,越抬头看,越觉得高;越用力钻研,越觉得深。弥,更加。

10. 塞下秋来风景异。衡阳雁去无留意。四面边声连角起。千嶂里。长烟落日孤城闭。 浊酒一杯家万里。燕然未勒归无计。羌管悠悠霜满地。人不寐。将军白发征夫泪。

译文:羌人的笛声悠扬,寒霜撒满大地。征人不能入寐,将军头发花白,战士洒下眼泪。 边境上秋天一来风景全异,向衡阳飞去的雁群毫无留恋的情意。从四面八方传来的边地悲声随着号角响起。重重叠叠的山峰里,长烟直上落日斜照孤城紧闭。

喝一杯陈酒怀念家乡远隔万里,可是燕然还未刻上平胡的功绩,回归无法预计。羌人的笛声悠扬,寒霜撒满大地。征人不能入寐,将军头发花白,战士洒下眼泪。

11.萧鼓追随春社近,衣冠简朴古风存

检举

由于有箫鼓伴随着山民的生活,可知春社的喜庆之日已临近了,此地人们的衣冠穿著仍十分古朴简单,保留下古时遗风。箫鼓:箫与鼓,泛指各种民间乐器。追随:伴随人的生活。春社:春季社日活动。衣冠:衣服头饰帽子等,代指衣著打扮。诗人此时已完全融合在古老的民风民俗之中。

篇三:英文文章美句背诵

Instruction for Life

1. Give people more than they expect and do it 1)cheerfully;

2. Don't believe all you hear, spend all you have, or sleep all you want;

3. When you say, "I love you", mean it;

4. When you say, "I'm sorry", look the person in the eye;

5. Believe in love at first sight;

6. Never laugh at anyone's dreams;

7. Love deeply and 2)passionately. You might get hurt but it's the only way to live life completely;

8. In disagreements, fight fairly. No 3)name-calling;

9. Talk slowly but think quickly;

10. When you lose, don't lose the lesson;

11. Remember the three R's: Respect for self; Respect for others; Responsibility for all your actions;

12. Don't let a little 4)dispute injure a great friendship;

13. When you realize you've made a mistake, take immediate steps to correct it;

14. Smile when picking up the phone. The caller will hear it in your voice;

15. Spend some time alone;

16. Open your arms to change but don't let go of your values;

17. Read more books and watch less TV;

18. Live a good, honorable life. Then when you get older and think back, you'll get to enjoy it a second time;

19. Trust in God but lock your car;

20. Once a year, go someplace you've never been before;

21. Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a stroke of luck;

22. Remember that the best relationship is the one where your love for each other is greater than your need for each other;

23. Approach love and cooking with 5)reckless 6)abandon.

【参考译文】

1.给别人比他们期许的更多,并欣喜地去做;

2.不要轻信你听到的每件事,不要花光你的所有,不要想睡多久就睡多久;

3.无论何时说“我爱你”,请真心实意;

4.在说“对不起”的时候,请看对方的眼睛;

5.相信一见钟情;

6.不要嘲笑他人的梦想;

7.深情热烈地爱,也许你会受伤,但这是使人生完整的唯一方法;

8.用一种公平磊落的方法解决争议,不要冒犯;

9.慢慢地说,但要迅速地想;

10.如果失败,别忘了汲取教训;

11.记住三个“尊”:尊重自己;尊重别人;对自己的行为负责;

12.不要让一场小小的争端毁了一段伟大的友谊;

13.无论何时你发现自己做错了,竭尽所能去弥补,动作要快;

14.在你打电话的时候微笑,因为对方能感觉到;

15.找点时间,单独呆会儿;

16.坦然接受改变,但不要摒弃你的个人理念;

17.多看点书,少看点电视;

18.努力营造优良的,值得尊重的生活。当你垂暮之年回首往事的时候,你会再次从中得到快乐;

19.相信上帝,但是别忘了锁车;

20.每年至少去一个你从没去过的地方;

21.记住,不是最理想的收获有时候也是一种好运;

22.记住:最好的关系在于对别人的爱多于对别人的索求;

23.无论对待爱情还是烹调,都不离不弃/不必墨守成规。

1) cheerfully ad. 高高兴兴地

2) passionately ad. 热烈地,热情地

3) name-calling n. 骂人

4) dispute n. 争论,辩论

5) reckless a. 不顾后果的

6) abandon n. 放任,狂热

>01 The Language of Music

A painter hangs his or her finished picture on a wall, and everyone can see it.

A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm -- two entirely different movements.

Singers and instrumentalists have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner's responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties: the hammers that hit the strings have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear. This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sounds with fanatical but selfless authority. Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.

01 音乐的语言

画家将已完成的作品挂在墙上,每个人都可以观赏到。 作曲家写完了一部作品,得由演奏者将其演奏出来,其他人才能得以欣赏。因为作曲家是如此完全地依赖于职业歌手和职业演奏者,所以职业歌手和职业演奏者肩上的担子可谓不轻。 一名学音乐的学生要想成为一名演奏者,需要经受长期的、严格的训练,就象一名医科的学生要成为一名医生一样。 绝大多

数的训练是技巧性的。 音乐家们控制肌肉的熟练程度,必须达到与运动员或巴蕾舞演员相当的水平。 歌手们每天都练习吊嗓子,因为如果不能有效地控制肌肉的话,他们的声带将不能满足演唱的要求。 弦乐器的演奏者练习的则是在左手的手指上下滑动的同时,用右手前后拉动琴弓--两个截然不同的动作。歌手和乐器演奏者必须使所有的音符完全相同协调。 钢琴家们则不用操这份心,因为每个音符都已在那里等待着他们了。 给钢琴调音是调音师的职责。 但调音师们也有他们的难处: 他们必须耐心地调理敲击琴弦的音锤,不能让音锤发出的声音象是打击乐器,而且每个交叠的音都必须要清晰。如何得到乐章清晰的纹理是学生指挥们所面临的难题:他们必须学会了解音乐中的每一个音及其发音之道。 他们还必须致力于以热忱而又客观的权威去控制这些音符。除非是和音乐方面的知识和悟性结合起来,单纯的技巧没有任何用处。 艺术家之所以伟大在于他们对音乐语言驾轻就熟,以致于可以满怀喜悦地演出写于任何时代的作品。

>02 Schooling and Education

It is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist.

Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.

Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.

上学与受教育

在美国,人们通常认为上学是为了受教育。 而现在却有人认为孩子们上学打断了他们受教育的过程。 这种观念中的上学与受教育之间的区别非常重要。 与上学相比,教育更具开放性,内容更广泛。 教育不受任何限制。 它可以在任何场合下进行,在淋浴时,在工作时,

在厨房里或拖拉机上。 它既包括在学校所受的正规教育,也包括一切非正规教育。 传授知识的人可以是德高望重的老者,可以是收音机里进行政治辩论的人们,可以是小孩子,也可以是知名的科学家。 上学读书多少有点可预见性,而教育往往能带来意外的发现。 与陌生人的一次随意谈话可能会使人认识到自己对其它宗教其实所知甚少。 人们从幼时起就开始受教育。 因此,教育是一个内涵很丰富的词,它自始至终伴随人的一生,早在人们上学之前就开始了。 教育应成为人生命中不可缺少的一部分。然而,上学却是一个特定的形式化了的过程。 在不同场合下,它的基本形式大同小异。 在全国各地,孩子们几乎在同一时刻到达学校,坐在指定的座位上,由一位成年人传授知识,使用大致相同的教材,做作业,考试等等。 他们所学的现实生活中的一些片断,如字母表或政府的运作,往往受到科目范围的限制。 例如,高中生们知道,在课堂上他们没法弄清楚他们社区里政治问题的真情,也不会了解到最新潮的电影制片人在做哪些尝试。 学校教育这一形式化的过程是有特定的限制的。

>03 The Definition of "Price"

Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the "system" of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else. If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define "price", many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total "package" being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price. "价格"的定义 价格决定资源的使用方式。 价格也是有限的产品与服务在买方中的配给手段。 美国的价格系统是复杂的网状系统,包括经济生活中一切产品买卖的价格,也包括名目繁多的各种服务,诸如劳动力、专职人员、交通运输、公共事业等服务的价格。 所有这些价格的内在联系构成了价格系统。 任何一种个别产品或服务的价格都与这个庞大而复杂的系统密切相关,而且或多或少地受到系统中其它成份的制约。如果随机挑选一群人,问问他们如何定义"价格",许多人会回答价格就是根据卖方提供的产品或服务,买方向其付出的钱数。 换句话说,价格就是市场交易中大家认同的产品或服务的货币量。 该定义就其本身来说自有其道理。 但要获得对价格在任何一桩交易中的完整认识,就必须考虑到大量"非货币"因素的影响。 买卖双方不但要清楚交易中的钱数,而且要非常熟悉交易物的质量和数量,交易的时

间、地点,采用哪种形式付款,有怎样的缓付和优惠,对交易物的质量保证、交货条款、退赔权利等等。 也就是说,为了能估算索价,买卖双方必须通晓构成交易物价格的通盘细节。 >04 Electricity

The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries

ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for millions of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.

All living cells send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small -- often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cells are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can send a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it lives. (An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel's body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to the length of its body. 电 当今时代是电气时代。 人们对电灯、收音机、电视和电话早已司空见惯以致很难想象没有它们生活会变成什么样。 当停电时,人们在摇曳不定的烛光下暗中摸索; 因没有红绿灯的指示,汽车在道路上迟疑不前;冰箱也停止工作,导致食物变质。人们只是在两个世纪前一点才开始了解电的使用原理,自然界却显然在这方面经历过了数百万年。 科学家不断发现许多生物世界里可能有益于人类的关于电的有趣秘密。所有生物细胞都会发出微小的电脉冲。 当心脏跳动时,把它发出的脉冲记录下来就成了心电图,这可让医生了解心脏的工作状况。大脑也发出脑电波,这可在脑电图上记录下来。 许多生物细胞发出的电流都是极微小的,小到要用灵敏仪器才能记录和测量。 但一些动物的某些肌肉细胞能转化成一个个发电机,以致完全失去肌肉细胞的功能。 这种细胞大量地连接在一起时产生的效果将是非常令人吃惊的。电鳗就是一种令人惊异的蓄电池。 它可以在水中发出相当于800伏特电压电流(家庭用户的电压只有120伏特)。 在电鳗的身体里,多至五分之四的细胞都专门用来发电,而且发出的电流的强度大约和它身体的长度成正比。

>05 The Beginning of Drama

There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual.