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大学英语词汇学考试

时间:2016-04-12 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:英语词汇学各章节重点、词汇解释、阅读及试卷

大学英语词汇学复习要点

1.外来词分为四类:1 Denizens ,cup from cuppa , port form portus 2) Aliens garage , décor 3) Translation –loans e.g. long time no see 4) Semantic- loans.e.g. dream.

2.Motivation 分类:onomatopoeic motivation, morphological motivation, semantic motivation,

etymological motivation. Types of meaning: grammatical ~ & lexical ~; conceptual ~& associative ~(connotative~, stylistic~, affective ~, collocative ~,)

多义关系及两种研究方法:Polysemy is a common feature peculiar to all natural language that one word has two or more senses or meanings. Diachronic approach is an approach to polysemy which studies how a word derived its different meanings from its primary meaning in the course of time.

3.Synchronic approach is an approach to polysemy which studies the coexistence of various meanings of the same word in a certain historical period of time.

4.Primary meaning is the only meaning that a word had when it was first created.

5.Derived meanings are the meanings that a word gets from the primary meaning at different stages of its development in the course of time.

6.同形同音异义关系 Homonymy is one of the features of words that a word is different in meaning from another, but either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in sound or spelling with the other Homonyms generally fall into three classes: perfect homonyms (same name); homographs (same spelling) and homophones (some sound). Perfect homonyms are those words identical both in sound and spelling, but different in meaning, e.g. bear /bea/ (n) a large heavy animal; bear /bea/ (v) to put up with. Homographs are the words identical only in spelling but different in sound and meaning, e.g. saw / / (v) to scatter seeds; sow /sau/ (n) female adult pig. Homophones refer to the words identical only in sound but different in spelling and meaning, e.g. dear /dia/ (n) a loved person; deer /dia/ (n) a kind of animal.

7.同形同音异义词与多义词的区别 Perfect homonyms and polysemants are fully identical with regard to spelling and pronunciation. This creates the problem of differentiation. The fundamental difference between homonyms and polysemants lies in the fact that the former refers to different words which happen to share the same form and the latter is the one and same word which has several

distinguishable meanings. One important criterion is to see their etymology, i.e. homonyms are from different sources whereas a polysemant is from the same source which has acquired different meanings in the course of development. The second principal consideration is semantic relatedness. The various meanings of a polysemant are correlated and connected to one central meaning to a greater or lesser degree, e. g. neck (See 6.1 Polysemy) . On the other hand, meanings of different homonyms have nothing to do with one another. In dictionaries, a polysemant has its meanings all listed under one headword whereas homonyms are listed as separate entries.

8.同义关系Synonyms are words which share the same or nearly the same meaning with each other but different in sound and spelling. There are absolute synonyms and relative synonyms which result from borrowing, dialects and regional English, figurative and euphemistic use of words, coincidence with idiomatic expressions. There exists the difference between or among synonyms in terms of their denotation, connotation or application. Absolute synonyms or complete synonyms are words which are identical in meaning in all its aspects. Relative synonyms or near-synonyms are similar or nearly the same in denotation, but embrace different shades of meaning or different degrees of a given quality.

9.Sources of Synonyms 1) Borrowing 2)Dialects and regional English 3) Figurative and euphemistic use of words 4) Coincidence with idiomatic expressions

10.如何区分同义词?1Difference in denotation2 Difference in connotation 3 Difference in application

11.What are the characteristics of antonyms?

12.1) Antonyms are classified on the basis of semantic opposition 2) A word which has more than one meaning can have more than one antonym. 3) Antonyms differ in semantic inclusion. 4) Contrary terms

are gradable antonyms, differing in degree of intenisty, so each has its own corresponding opposite.

13.上下义关系:Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic inclusion. That is, the meaning of a more specific word is included in that of another more general word. Superordinates refer to some general words; subordinates denote those more specific words. Hyponymy can be described in terms of tree-like graphs, with higher-order superordinates above the lower subordinates. But their status either as superordinate or subordinate is relative to other terms. For example, horse, dog, pig are

subordinates in relation to animal, but superordinates of mare, hound and boar, Animal itself becomes a subordinate of creature. And creature in turn becomes

14.词义变化的种类There are five types of meaning, changes: extension, narrowing, degradation, elevation, and transfer among which extension and narrowing are the most common. Changes in meaning can be accounted for from extra-linguistic factors (historical reason, class reason, and

psychological reason) and intra-linguistic factors (shortening, the influx of borrowing, and analogy).

15.词义的扩大 Extension is a process by which a word with a specialized sense is generalized to cover a broader or less

16.definite concept. Compare the following;词义的缩小Narrowing is a process by which a word of wider meaning acquires a specialized sense;词义的升华Elevation is a process by which a word moves from a derogatory or neutral sense to a neutral and/or appreciative sense;词义的降格Degradation is a process by which a word of reputation slides into a pejorative use,;词义的转移Transfer is a process by which a word denoting one thing changes to refer to a different but related thing. Paper serves as an example. This word formerly denoted an African plant papyrus, which was once used to make paper. In modern times, paper is made from rags, wood, straw and the like, but the product has retained the same name. There is associated transfer. There are other kinds of transfer, such as, concrete to abstract, abstract to concrete and transfer of sensation.

17.语境的种类:非语言语境。语言语境:词汇语境和语法语境。There are two types of contexts: linguistic context and extra-linguistic (or non-linguistic context). Extra-linguistic context refers to those

situations and features which are not directly a part of the language in use but which either contribute in conveying a message or have an influence on language use. Linguistic or Intra-linguistic context is further subdivided into lexical context and grammatical context. By lexical context we mean the words that occur together with the word in question. By grammatical context we mean that the meanings of a word may be influenced by the structure in which it occurs.

18.语境的作用:Three major functions of context: elimination of ambiguity, indication of referents, provision of clues for inferring word-meaning. Context an be summed up as follows:1) definition 2) explanation 3) example 4) synonymy 5) Antonymy 6)hyponymy 7) relevant details 8) word structure

19.英语习语的特点The characteristics of idioms include semantic unity and structural stability.

20.英语习语的分类According to the criterion of their grammatical functions, we classify them into idioms nominal in nature, idioms adjectival in nature, idioms verbal in nature, idioms adverbial in nature, and sentence idioms. The stylistic features are characterized with colloquialisms, slang, and literary expressions.

21.英语习语的使用The use of idioms involves their stylistic features, rhetorical features , and variations of idioms.

22.英语习语的修辞色彩The rhetorical features of idioms are represented with phonetic manipulation ( alliteration 头韵法and rhyme叠韵) , lexical manipulation ( reiteration复用, repetition重复and

juxtaposition反义词叠用), figures of speech ( simile明喻, metaphor暗喻, metonymy转喻, synecdoche借代, personification拟人, euphemism委婉)

23.英语习语的变异形式In the variations, addition, deletion, replacement, position-shifting and dismembering are involved in the changes in idioms constituents .

24.Associative meaning : 1) associative meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning. 2)It differs from the conceptual meaning in that it is open-ended and

indeterminated. 3)It is liable to the influence of such factors as culture , experience, religion,

geographical region, class background,education, etc. 4)Associative meaning comprises four types : connotative, stylistic, affective, and collocative.

25.Metonymy 和Synecdoche ,修饰有何区别? Both metonymy and synecdoche involve substitution of names, yet they differ in that the former is a case of using the name of one thing for another closely associated with it and the latter is that of substituting part for the whole and vice versa.

26.词典的种类There are four types of dictionaries with their features mentioned in this parts:

(1) monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, (2) linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries, (3) unabridged, desk and pocket dictionaries, (4) specialized dictionaries. A monolingual dictionary is a dictionary which is written in one language.

27.A bilingual dictionary is one in which two languages are involved.

28.A linguistic dictionary is a dictionary which aims at defining words and explaining their usages in the language.

29. An encyclopedic dictionary is one in which encyclopedic information is provided along with the general information as in a linguistic dictionary .

30.An encyclopedia is a dictionary which only provide encyclopedic information concerning each headword.

31.An unabridged dictionary is an unshortened dictionary with at least 200,000 headwords that can supply a great quantity of basic, information about a word.

32.A desk dictionary is a medium-sized dictionary containing words ranging from 50,000 to 150,000.

33.A pocket dictionary is a dictionary which has about 50,000 entries or fewer.

七、分析综合49-50*9

1、对句子进行理论分析,并改进:ambiguous——原因cause——可以如何理解?——如何改进?improve

2、对单词进行分析:re-collect-ion——归属free morpheme, bound morpheme——解释

3、构词法进行分析:word formation: 例如:VIP=very important person 属于aronym

4、分析idiom:属于什么短语——作用

注:重点有 1、idioms相关知识; 2、一些名词解释,如术语等; 3、types of meaning;

二. 串讲内容

Introduction 部分:

34.Lexicology 这门课算哪一种学科的分支:Lexicology is a branch of linguistics.

35.Lexicology和那些重要的学科建立了联系:

1)Morphology 2) Semantics 3) Stylistics 4) Etymology 5) Lexicography

36.研究lexicology 的两大方法:1) Diachronic approach : 历时语言学2) Synchronic approach : 共时语言学e.g. wife纵观历时语言学的方法论,woman 词义的变化算是词义变化的哪一种模式?

Woman 的词义的变化算Narrowing or specialization

第一章

37.What is word ?词具有哪些特点?词的特点也就是对词的名词解释。1) A word is a minimal free form of a language;2) A sound unity or a given sound ;3) a unit of meaning;4) a form that can function alone in a sentence.以上词的四个特点也就是词的名词解释

38.词的分类(classification of a word)词根据发音可以分为哪两种词?或者说词根据拼写可以分为哪两类词

1) simple words 2) complex words单音节词例子:e.g. Man and fine are simple多音节词例子:e.g.

Management, misfortune, blackmailmanagement 可以次划分为manage 和 –ment misfortune 可以次划分为mis- 和 fortuneblackmail 次划分为black 和 mail

39.What is the relationship between sound and meaning?

1)There is ?no logical relationship between the sound and actual thing.e.g. dog. Cat

2)The relationship between them is conventional.

3) In different languages the same concept can be represented by different sounds.

40.What is relationship between sound and form?

1)The written form of a natural language is the written record of the oral form. Naturally the written form should agree with the oral form, such as English language.

2)This is fairly true of English in its earliest stage i.e. Old English

3)With the development of the language, more and more differences occur between the two.

41.What are the great changes that causes illogical relationship or irregularity between sound and form?

1) The internal reason for this is that the English alphabet was adopted from the Romans, which does not have a separate letter tore present each sound in the language so that some letters must do double duty or work together in combination.

2) Another reason is that the pronunciation has changed more rapidly than spelling over the years, and in some cases the two have drawn farapart.

3) A third reason is that some of the differences were created by the early scribes.

4) Finally comes the borrowing, which is an important channel of eiching the English vocabulary. 要记住以上四句话中的关键词:

1) influenced by Romans2) Pronunciation changed3) early scribes4) borrowing

42.你能不能举出外来语对英语发音,拼写造成不一致的例子有哪些?e.g. stimulus (L) ,fiesta (Sp) ,eureka (Gr), kimono (Jap)外来语对英语造成的最大的影响就是?sound and form ‘不一致。

43.What is vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to the total number of the words in a language, but it can stand for all the words used in a particular historical period. Vocabulary also refers to all the words of a given dialect, given book, a given discipline and the words possessed by an individual person.

44.Classification of Words (本课的一个重点, 年年考试都考)

45.What is the classification of words? How to classify words in linguistics?

Three criteria :1) By use of frequency 2) By notion 3) By origin

By use of frequency 可划分为:1) The basic word stock 2) Nonbasic word vocabulary

By notion 可划分为:1) Content word2) Functional word Content words are also known as notional words . (Content words 的别称)Functional words are also known as empty words, or form words.

(Functional words 的别称)Functional words possesses a characteristic of basic word stock, i.e. stability

46.According to Stuart Robertson ,et al (1957),* (年年考试必考) the nine functional words , namely ,and , be , have , it , of , the , to , will ,you

47.What are the characteristics of basic word stock?

1) All national character2) Stability3) Productivity4) Polysemy5) Collocability

要把握住?All national character‘词,就是和我们日常生活息息相关的,最普通词

48.稳定性是基本词的一个很大特点,请你举例说明?e.g. man, woman , fire, water …e.g. machine, video, telephone …e.g. bow, chariot , knight Stability is relative, not

大学英语词汇学考试

absolute.

49.根据词的use frequency 划分出的基本词之外,还有一类词叫作None basic vocabulary, 非基本词有几大特点?或者是几大分类?1) Terminology e.g. sonata, algebra2) Jargon e.g. Bottom line ( Jargon ) 3) Slang e.g. smoky, bear ( Slang ) 4) Argot e.g. persuader5) Dialectal words e.g. station ( AusE = ranch ) bluid ( ScotE= blood)6) Archaisms e.g. wilt (will)7) Neologisms e.g. email ( Neologisms )beaver 是girl 的slang 表达方式,但是二者之间存在着Stylistic difference

50.Which constitutes the larger number among English vocabulary, contentor functional

words ? Answer : Content words What is native words? Answer : (1) By origin, English words can be classified into native words and borrowed words.(2) Native words are words brought to Britain in the fifth century by the German tribes: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, thus know asAnglo-Saxon words. (3) Words of Anglo-Saxon origin are small in number ,amounting to roughly 50,000 to 60,000, but they form the mainstream of the basic word stock and stand at the core of the language

51.什么叫borrowed words?Answer: (1) words taken over from foreign languages are know as

borrowed words or loan words or borrowings in simple terms.(2) It is estimated that English borrowings constitute 80 percent of the modern English vocabulary (3) The English language has vast debts .In any dictionary some 80% of the entries are borrowed.

52什么叫Denizens?Denizens are words borrowed early in the past and now are well assimilated into the English language. In other words they have come to conform to the English way of pronunciation and spelling, such as port from portus (L).?Denizens‘的例子都要记:Port from portus (L), cup from cuppa (L),shift from skipta (ON), shirt from skyrta (ON), change from changier (F), pork from porc (F). 53什么叫Translation-loans ?Translation-loans are words and expressions formed form the existing material in the English language but modeled on the patterns taken from another language, such as ? long time no see from haojiumeijian (Ch)

54什么叫Semantic-loans ?words of this category are not borrowed with reference to the form ,But their meaning are borrowed , in other words, English has borrowed a new meaning for an existing word in the language ,such as the word dream ,which originally meant ‘joy‘ and ?music ‘, and its modern meaning was borrowed later from the Norse.

第二章:The development of the English vocabulary

The Indo-European Language Family It is assumed that the world has approximately 3,000(some put it5,000)languages ,which can be grouped into roughly 300 language families on the basis of similarities in their basic word stock and grammar .

55.(重点:语系划分的标准)What is the criteria to divide language families ?

The answer : 1. the basis of similarities in their basic word stock 2. grammar(重点)The Balto-Slavic comprises such modern languages as(选择题内容:)Prussian, Lithuanian , Polish ,Czech,

Bulgarian ,Slovenian and Russian.

56.?Indo-European’ 两大分支:1.Eastern set 2.Western set Eastern set: Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Albanian Western set : Celtic, Italic , Hellenic, Germanic. In the western Set, Greek is the modern language derived from Hellenic. Celtic :Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Breton The five Romance languages, namely ,Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian , Roumanian all belong to the Italic.

The Germanic family consists of the four Northern European Languages: Norwegian ,Icelandic, Danish and Swedish ,which are generally known as Scandinavian languages. Then there is German,

Dutch ,Flemish and English.With Vikings‘ invasion, many Scandinavian words came into the English language. It is estimated that at least 900 words of Scandinavian origin have survived in modern English. Old English has a vocabulary of about 50,000 to 60,000 words. It was a highly inflected language just like modern German.

57.重点句: Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England

古英语最大的模糊性的概念来自于 (scripts )古英语正因为出现印刷术才打破了 ( early scripts)Sound and form 真正达到统一是在什么时期?.Sound and form reached their concord in ( Modern English period )如果从词汇变化的角度而言,Modern English 又可以细划分为 early period ,modern period.

58.*现代英语早期阶段属于哪一种文化现象的发展时期 (重要的选择或填空内容)

Early modern English appeared in the Renaissance

59.Modern English period 有什么样的外来语的进入?

The Latin words swarmed into English in early modern English period现代英语时期,英语词汇大量丰富还有另外一个原因是 (colonization)The richness of Modern English in vocabulary also arises from

(Colonization )The English language has evolved from a synthetic language to the present analytic language ( 重要选择或填空内容)Growth of Present-day English Vocabulary

60.Three main sources of new words :

1)The rapid development of modern science and technology

2)Social, economic and political changes;3)The influence of other cultures and language

61.Modes of Vocabulary Development 1)creation 2) semantic change 3) borrowing2)Semantic

篇二:大学英语专业词汇学试题

2000年4月全国自学考试--英语词汇学试卷及答案

第一部分 选择题

Ⅰ.Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket.(30%)

1.In Old English there was _______ agreement between sound form.( )

A. more

B. little

C. less

D. gradual

2.Both LDCE and CCELD are _______.( )

A. general dictionaries

B. monolingual dictionaries

C. both A and B

D. neither A and B

3.The word "MINISKIRT" is _______.( )

A. morphologically motivated

B. etymologically motivated

C. semantically motivated

D. none of the above

4.The most important way of vocabulary development in present-day English is _______.( )

A. borrowing

B. semantic change

C. creation of new words

D. all the above

5.Beneralization is a process by which a word that originally had a specialized meaning has now become ________.( )

A. generalized

B. expanded

C. elevated

D. degraded

6.Some morphemes have _______ as they are realized by more than one morph according to their position in word.( )

A. alternative morphs

B. single morphs

C. abstract units

D. discrete units

7.Old English vocabulary was essentially _______ with a number of borrowings from Latin and Scandinavian.( )

A. Italic

B. Germanic

C. Celtic

D. Hellenic

8.Compounds are different from free phrases in all the following ways EXCEPT _______.

( )

A. semantics

B. grammar

C. phonetics

D. lexicology

9.If two main constituents of an idiom share the same initial sound, it is called _______.( )

A. repetition

B. alliteration

C. rhyme

D. none of the above

10.Which of the following words is a functional word?( )

A. Often

B. Never

C. Although

D. Desk

11.Rhetorical features are shown in such respects of phonetic and lexical manipulation as well as _______.( )

A. semantic unity

B. structural stability

C. idiomatic variation

D. figure of speech

12.The advantage of classifying idioms according to grammatical functions is to _______.( )

A. use idioms correctly and appropriately

B. understand idioms correctly

C. remember idioms quickly

D. try a new method of classification

13.Borrowing as a source of homonymy in English can be illustrated by _______.( )

A. long(not short)

B. ball(a dancing party)

C. rock(rock'n'roll)

D. ad(advertisement)

14.The change of word meaning is brought about by the following internal factors EXCEPT _______.( )

A. the influx of borrowing

B. repetition

C. analogy

D. shortening

15.Which of the following is NOT a component of linguistic context?( )

A. Words and phrases.

B. Sentences

C. Text or passage

D. Time and place

第二部分 非选择题

Ⅱ.Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book.(10%)

16.Word-meaning changes by modes of extension, narrowing, degradation, elevation and ___________________.

17.The language used in England between 450 and 1150is called _________________.

18.CCELD is a ________________ dictionary.

19.In the phrase "the mouth of the river",the word "mouth" is _________________ motivated.

20.Physical situation or environment relating to the use of words is ________________ context.

Ⅲ.Match the words or expressions in Column A with those in Column B according to

1)types of meaning changes;

2)types of meaning;3)language branches and 4)meaning and context.(10%)

A B

21.Scandinavian( ) A.mill(place where things are made)

22.Germanic( ) B.grammatical

23.extension( ) C.double meaning

24.narrowing( ) D.Swedish

25.linguistic( ) E.comprehend/understand

26.ambiguity( ) F.Dutch

27.participants( ) G.degermined

28.difference in denotation( ) H.pigheaded

29.appreciative( ) I.non-linguistic

30.pejorative( ) J.iron(a device for smoothing clothes)

Ⅳ.Study the following words or expressions and identify 1)types of bound morphemes underlined, and 2)types of word formation or prefixes.(10%)

31.predict( )

32.motel( )

33.potatoes( )

34.blueprint( )

35.preliminaries( )

36.Southward( )

37.demilitarize( )

38.hypersensityve( )

39.retell( )

40.multi-purposes( )

Ⅴ.Define the following terms.(10%)

41.acronymy

42.native words

43.elevation

44.stylistic meaning

45.monolingral dictionary

Ⅵ.Answer the following questions. Your answers should the clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below.(12%)

46.How many types of motivation are there in English? Give ONE example for each type.

47.What are the major sources of English synonyms? Illustrate your points.

48.What are the clues generally provided in verbal context?

Ⅶ.Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below.(18%)

49.analyze the morphological structures of following words and point out the types of the morphemes.Recollection, nationalist, unearthly

50.Pick out the idioms in the following extract and explain its origin and the effect of using this form."Well, it's the old story of the stitch in time," he said.

答案

2000年4月份高等教育自学考试全国统一命题考试 英语词汇学试题参考答案

Ⅰ.(30%)

1.A 2.C 3.A 4.C 5.A 6.A 7.B 8.D 9.B 10.C 11.D 12.A 13.B 14.B 15.D

Ⅱ.(10%)

16.transfer

17.OLD English

18.monolingual

19.semantically

20.extralinguistic/non-linguistic

Ⅲ.(10%)

21.D

22.F

23.A

24.J

25.B

26.C

27.I

28.E

29.G

30.H

Ⅳ.(10%)

31.bound root

32.(head+tail)blinding

33.inflectional affix/morpheme

34.a+n

35.full conversion

36.suffix

37.reversativ

38.prefix of degree

39.prefix

40.number prefix

Ⅴ.(10%)

41.The process of forming new words by joining the initial letters of names of organizations or special noun phrases and technical terms.

42.Native words, also known as Anglo-Saxon words, are words brought to Britian in the 5th century by the Germanic tribes.

43.The process by which words rise from humble beginnings to positions of importance.

44.The distinctive stylistic features of words which make them appropriate for different context.

45.A dictionary written in one language, or a dictionary in which entries are defined in the same language.

Ⅵ.(12%)

46.There are four types of motivation:

1)Onomatopoeic motivation, e.g. cuckoo, squeak, quack, etc.

2)Morphological motivation, e.g. airmail, reading-lamp, etc.

3)Semantic motivation, e.g. the mouth of the river, the foot of the mountain, etc.

4)Etymological motivation, e.g. pen, laconic, etc.

47.Key points:borrowing; dialects and regional English; figurative and euphemistic use of words; coincidence with idiomatic expressions.

48.Key points:definition; explanation; example; synonymy; antonymy; hyponymy; relevant details and word structure.

Ⅶ.(18%)

49.

1)Each of the three words consists of three morphemes, recollection(re+collect+ion),nationalist(nation+al+ist),unearthly(un+earth+ly).

2)Of the nine morphemes, only "collect","nation" and "earth" are free morphemes as they can exist by themselves.

3)All the rest re-,-ion,-al,-ist,un- and -ly are bound as none of them can stand alone as words.

50.

1)the stitch in time ----- a stitch in time saves nine(3分)

2)proverbs are concise, forcible and thought-provoking(1分)

3)using an old saying is more persuasive(2分)

4)the short form saves time, more colloquial(2分)

5)indicates intimacy or close relationship(1分)

篇三:大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷

大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷(1)

I. Choose the best from the four answers provided for each question. (20 points) 1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Shakespeare’s poem ―What’s in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet‖ is a reflection of the conventionalist’s opinion concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

B. Facts have proved the naturalists to be valid concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

C. The conventionalists hold that the relations between sound and meaning are conventional and arbitrary.

D. The fact that words with the same meaning have different phonological forms in different languages supports the conventionalists.

2. The word ―brunch‖ is formed from ―breakfast‖ and ―lunch‖. Such a process of word-formation is called ____________.

A. affixationB. back-formationC. blendingD. abbreviation

3. It’s easy for us to associate ―husband‖ with ―wife‖. Such an association is an application of ____________.

A. the minimal-contrast rule

B. the feature-deletion and –addition rule

C. the marking rule

D. the category preservation rule

4. The pair of antonyms ―teach—learn‖ belong to ____________.

A. complementaries

B. contraries

C. conversives

D. None of the above

5. The derivational antonym of ―pleasant‖ is ____________.

A. pleasure

B. unpleasant

C. disgusting

D. not pleasant

6. The pair of words ―air — heir‖ belong to ____________.

A. homograph

B. homophone

C. full homonyms

D. none of the above

7. The major difference between ―propaganda‖ and ―publicity‖ lies in their ____________.

A. distribution

B. emotional coloring

C. stylistic coloring

D. collocation

8. The semantic relationship between ―spinach‖ and ―vegetable‖ is a kind of ____________.

A. hyponymy

B. antonymy

C. synonymy

D. homonymy

9. ____________ are related in the same way as the pair of words ―Mystery: Clue‖ are related to each other.

A. Book: reader

B. fruit: bowl

C. door: key

D. detective: crime

10. The word ―nice‖ originally meant ―foolish‖, and now it means ―pleasant‖. This process of semantic change is called _______.

A. degeneration

B. generalization

C. elevation

D. specialization

11. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the formula ―word – concept – referent‖?

A. A concept is the base of the meaning of a word.

B. A concept is an abstraction from the referents.

C. The formula shows that the word refers to the referent through a concept.

D. There is a direct relationship between a word and its referent.

12. ____________ means using a form that represents one part of speech as another part of speech without changing the form of the word.

A. Blending

B. Conversion

C. Shortening

D. Affixation

13. The semantic feature used to distinguish between ―bachelor‖ and ―spinster‖ is ____________.

A. [Human]

B. [Adult]

C. [Common]

D. [Male]

14. ____________ is characterized by full inflections.

A. Old English

B. Middle English

C. Early Modern English

D. Modern English

15. The word ―gold-collar‖ is created by imitating the word ―blue-collar‖. This kind of analogy is based on ____________.

A. number

B. color

C. oppositeness in meaning

D. space

16. In terms of register, most English idioms belong to ____________.

A. colloquial English

B. common core of the English language

C. formal English

D. slang

17. In the sentence ―this is the face that has changed the future of the world‖, a(n) ______ is used.

A. metaphor

B. metonymy

C. synecdoche

D. analogy

18. In the following poem ―All the world’s a stage, / And all the men and women mere players, /They have their exits and entrances‖, what figure of speech is used?

A. simile

B. hyperbole

C. metaphor

C. personification

19. Which of the following is an example of grammatical collocation?

A. lift an embargo

B. commit suicide

C. avoid doing

D. sound asleep

20. Some puns are based on ______.

A. synonymy

B. hyponymy

C. homonymy

D. antonymy

II. Judge whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the textbook. (20 points)

21. According to modern lexicology, the minimal meaningful unit of a language is word. 22. The same phrase can be either a free phrase or an idiom, depending on the meaning and

context.

23. The word ―teacher‖ is a transparent word.

24. The development of American English was plain sailing. In other words, the attitudes of both British and Americans towards American English were always positive.

25. An idiom composed of ―noun + and + noun‖ is always nominal in nature.

26. Written English is always formal, while oral English is always informal.

27. When you want to express your sympathy towards somebody whose grandfather has just died, it’s proper for you to say ―I am very sorry that your grandpa has kicked the bucket.‖

28. In the word ―snatch‖, the sound sequence ―sn‖ can be associated with ―quick movement‖. This is an example of ―primary onomatopoeia‖.

29. ―V.O.A.‖ is an acronym because it is formed from the initial letters of words and pronounced as letters.

30. In English, the word ―edit‖ is created by the deletion of the supposed suffix ―or‖ in the word ―editor‖. This process is called affixation.

31. In the sentence ―it is possible that the local court will find for him‖, the phrase ―find for‖ is an idiom.

32. In terms of spelling, ―honour‖ is American English, and ―honor‖ is British English. 33. In English, absolute antonyms are more numerous than relative synonyms.

34. The central meaning of a word is always its primary meaning.

35. The use of ―the Kremlin‖ for Russian government is called metonymy.

36. The word ―sanctuary‖ originally meant ―sacred place‖, and later it is used to refer to ―any place where refuge is provided‖. This process of semantic change is called specialization.

37. In terms of diction, the sentence ―penalties for overdue books will be strictly enforced‖ is written English.

38. One of the differences between American English and British English lies in the form of subjunctive mood. For example, the sentence ―I move that Mr. Smith be appointed Secretary‖ is British English, while ―I move that Mr. Smith should be appointed Secretary‖ is American English.

39. In the group of words of ―black, red, yellow and color‖, ―color‖ is the superordinate, and ―black, red, yellow‖ are the subordinates, or hyponyms.

篇四:大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷(1)

大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷(1)

I. Choose the best from the four answers provided for each question. (20 points)

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true? B

A. Shakespeare’s poem ―What’s in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet‖ is a reflection of the conventionalist’s opinion concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

B. Facts have proved the naturalists to be valid concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

C. The conventionalists hold that the relations between sound and meaning are conventional and arbitrary.

D. The fact that words with the same meaning have different phonological forms in different languages supports the conventionalists.

2. The word ―brunch‖ is formed from ―breakfast‖ and ―lunch‖. Such a process of word-formation is called ___C_________.

A. affixation B. back-formation C. blending D. abbreviation

3. It’s easy for us to associate ―husband‖ with ―wife‖. Such an association is an application of ____D________.

A. the minimal-contrast rule

B. the feature-deletion and –addition rule

C. the marking rule

D. the category preservation rule

4. The pair of antonyms ―teach—learn‖ belong to ___C_________.

A. complementaries

B. contraries

C. conversives

D. None of the above

5. The derivational antonym of ―pleasant‖ is ________B____.

A. pleasure

B. unpleasant

C. disgusting

D. not pleasant

6. The pair of words ―air — heir‖ belong to ___C_________.

A. homograph

B. homophone

C. full homonyms

D. none of the above

7. The major difference between ―propaganda‖ and ―publicity‖ lies in their _____B_______.

A. distribution

B. emotional coloring

C. stylistic coloring

D. collocation

8. The semantic relationship between ―spinach‖ and ―vegetable‖ is a kind of _____C_______.

A. hyponymy

B. antonymy

C. synonymy

D. homonymy

9. ____________ are related in the same way as the pair of words ―Mystery: Clue‖ are related to each other.

A. Book: reader

B. fruit: bowl

C. door: key

D. detective: crime

10. The word ―nice‖ originally meant ―foolish‖, and now it means ―pleasant‖. This process of semantic change is called ___C____.

A. degeneration

B. generalization

C. elevation

D. specialization

11. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the formula ―word – concept – referent‖?D

A. A concept is the base of the meaning of a word.

B. A concept is an abstraction from the referents.

C. The formula shows that the word refers to the referent through a concept.

D. There is a direct relationship between a word and its referent.

12. ____C________ means using a form that represents one part of speech as another part of speech without changing the form of the word.

A. Blending

B. Conversion

C. Shortening

D. Affixation

13. The semantic feature used to distinguish between ―bachelor‖ and ―spinster‖ is _______D_____.

A. [Human]

B. [Adult]

C. [Common]

D. [Male]

14. ____________ is characterized by full inflections.

A. Old English

B. Middle English

C. Early Modern English

D. Modern English

15. The word ―gold-collar‖ is created by imitating the word ―blue-collar‖. This kind of analogy is based on ____B________.

A. number

B. color

C. oppositeness in meaning

D. space

16. In terms of register, most English idioms belong to ____________.

A. colloquial English

B. common core of the English language

篇五:大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷(3)

大学英语专业词汇学考试模拟试卷(3)

I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement. (20 points)

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Shakespeare’s poem ―What’s in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet‖ is a reflection of the conventionalist’s opinion concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

B. Facts have proved the naturalists to be valid concerning the relationship between sound and meaning.

C. The conventionalists hold that the relations between sound and meaning are conventional and arbitrary.

D. The fact that words with the same meaning have different phonological forms in different languages supports the conventionalists.

2. The word ―literature‖ is borrowed from ____________.

A. German

B. Greek

C. French

D. Chinese

3. The word ―brunch‖ is created by means of ____________.

A. affixation

B. back-formation

C. blending

D. abbreviation

4. A solid grasp of the usages of small words is very important in learning English. By small words we mean ____________.

A. function words

B. monosyllabic single verbs

C. phrasal verbs

D. all of the above

5. In terms of register, English idioms belong to ____________.

A. colloquial English

B. common core of the English language

C. slang

D. all of the above

6. The association of ―husband‖ with ―wife‖ is an application of ____________.

A. the minimal-contrast rule

B. the feature-deletion and –addition rule

C. the marking rule

D. the category preservation rule

7. The pair of antonyms ―teach—learn‖ belong to ____________.

A. complemetaries

B. contraries

C. conversives

D. None of the above

8. The chief foreign elements in the vocabulary of the English language are _______.

A. Greek

B. Latin

C. French

D. All of the above

9. The derivational antonym of ―pleasant‖ is ____________.

A. pleasure

B. unpleasant

C. disgusting

D. not pleasant

10. The pair of words ―air — heir‖ belong to ____________.

A. homograph

B. homophone

C. full homonyms

D. none of the above

11. The major difference between ―stubborn‖ and ―obstinate‖ lies in their ____________.

A. distribution

B. emotional coloring

C. stylistic coloring

D. collocation

12. The semantic relationship between ―spinach‖ and ―vegetable‖ is ____________.

A. hyponymy

B. antonymy

C. synonymy

D.homonymy

13. ____________ is opposite in meaning to ―fortuitous‖.

A. unfortunate

B. stupid

C. pious

D. designed

14. ____________ are related in the same way as the pair of words ―Mystery: Clue‖ are related to each other.

A. Book: reader

B. fruit: bowl

C. door: key

D. detective: crime

15. The word ―nice‖ originally meant ―foolish‖, and now it means ―pleasant‖. This process of semantic change is called _______.

A. degeneration

B. generalization

C. elevation

D. specialization

16. In the sentence ―this is the face that has changed the future of the world‖, ______ is used.

A. metaphor

B. metonymy

C. synecdoche

D. analogy

17. Which of the following statement is NOT true about the formula ―word – concept – referent‖?

A. A concept is the base of the meaning of a word.

B. A concept is an abstraction from the referent.

C. The formula shows that the word refers to the referent through a concept.

D. A word is a label of the referent.

18. English idioms are characterized by ____________.

A. semantic unity

B. structural stability

C. demotivation

D. all of the above

19. ____________ means using a form that represents one part of speech as another part of speech without changing the form of the word.

A. Blending

B. Conversion

C. Shortening

D. Affixation

20. The semantic feature used to distinguish between ―bachelor‖ and ―spinster‖ is ____________.

A. [Human]

B. [Adult]

C. [Common]

D. [Male]

II. Judge whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). (20 points)

21. According to modern lexicology, the minimal meaningful unit of a language is a word.

22. The same phrase can be both a free phrase and an idiom, depending on its meaning.

23. The word ―teacher‖ is a transparent word.

24. The development of American English was plain sailing. In other words, the attitudes of both British and Americans towards American English were positive.

25. An idiom composed of ―noun + and + noun‖ is always nominal in nature.

26. Written English is always formal, while oral English is always informal.

27. When you want to express your sympathy towards somebody whose grandfather has just died, it’s proper for you to say ―I am very sorry that your grandpa has kicked the bucket.‖

28. In the word ―snatch‖, the sound sequence ―sn‖ can be associated with ―quick movement‖. This is an example of ―primary onomatopoeia‖.

29. ―V.O.A.‖ is an acronym because it is formed from the initial letters of words and pronounced as letters.

30. In English, the word ―edit‖ is created by the deletion of the supposed suffix ―or‖ in the word ―editor‖. This process is called affixation.

31. In the sentence ―it is possible that the local court will find for him‖, the phrase ―find for‖ is an idiom.

32. In terms of spelling, ―honour‖ is American English, and ―honor‖ is British English.

33. In English, absolute antonyms are more numerous.

34. The central meaning of a word is always its primary meaning.

35. The use of ―the Kremlin‖ for Russian government is called metonymy.

36. The word ―sanctuary‖ originally meant ―sacred place‖, and later it is used to refer to ―any place where refuge is provided‖. This process of semantic change is called specialization.

37. In terms of diction, the sentence ―penalties for overdue books will be strictly enforced‖ is written English.

38. One of the differences between American English and British English lies in the form of subjunctive mood. For example, the sentence ―I move that Mr. Smith be appointed Secretary‖ is British English, while ―I move that Mr. Smith should be appointed Secretary‖ is American English.

39. In the group of words of ―black, red, yellow and color‖, ―color‖ is the superordinate, and ―black, red, yellow‖ are the subordinates, or hyponyms.

40. Modern English lexicology belongs to general lexicology.

III. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. (10 points)

41. A foreign language learner’s vocabulary can be divided into active vocabulary and ____________ vocabulary.

42. Most of the English native words are of ____________ origin.

43. The first authoritative English dictionary is called ____________, which was compiled by Johnson.

44. ―ISBN‖, which stands for ____________, is an initialism often seen the in back cover of a book.

45. Small words have two features, that is, a ____________ of meanings and functions as well as flexibility of usage.

46. There are two types of collocations in English, that is, ____________ collocation and lexical collocation.

47. Old English is a ____________ language, while modern English is mainly an analytic language.

48. The variants of the same morpheme are called ____________.

49. ____________ is a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one thing is applied to another.

50. ____________ refers to the phenomenon that the same word has two or more different meanings.

IV. Correct the errors in the following statements with the help of your English-English dictionary. Each statement contains only ONE error. (20 points)

51. His urge to go is held in check by his desire not be rude to his guest.

52. The compositions contained so few errors that the teacher got the students correct one another’s papers.

53. I never regretted not to accept his offer, for it was not where my interest lay.

54. She may be lacking experience, but she learns quickly.

55. We are all astonished to learn that the apparently respectful professor was really a spy.

56. She concerns her son’s safety.

57. The water is feeling warm.

58. What I did was to know the language.

59. The teacher is being confused.

60. The patron is owning the house.

V. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. (10 points)

61. What’s the difference between radiation and concatenation?