首页 | 小学 | 初中 | 高中 | 作文 | 英语 | 幼教 | 综合 | 早知道 |
大学英语 当前位置:唯才教育网 > 英语 > 大学英语 > 正文 唯才教育网手机站

大学英语第四册课文综合教程

时间:2016-04-12 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册课文翻译

西财《倚天屠龙工作室》

倾情奉献

全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册

Unit1-unit8课文重点翻译

http://

They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, that nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wrong.

人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。

The Icy Defender

Nila B. Smith

1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter. 冰雪卫士

奈拉·B·史密斯

1812年,法国皇帝拿破仑·波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。

2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of

Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

1941年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒的军事实力堪称无敌。他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。希特勒希望速战速决,但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一臂之力。

Napoleon's Campaign

3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks.

拿破仑发起的战役

1812年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵60万。这

些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,装备精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在5个星期内攻下俄国。

4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines.

不久,拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发生。令他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大军紧追不舍,但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。

5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead

on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到了8月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天?

6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在448公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812年9月7日,法俄两军在莫斯科以西112公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3万名法国士兵以及4.4万名俄国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战

篇二:全新版大学英语第四册综合教程课文

⑴The Icy Defender(n.保卫者)

1. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor(n.皇帝;君主) of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland(n.祖国;家乡). He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating (a.毁灭性的)enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw(a.阴冷的;生的;未加工的), bitter, bleak(a.寒冷刺骨的;凄凉的) Russian winter.

2. In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched(vt.开始;发射) an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled(a.无比的). His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign(n.战役;运动) but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

Napoleon's Campaign

3. In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders(n.边界(地区)) of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient(a.效率高的), and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest(n.征服,战胜) of Russia in five weeks.

4. Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive(a.决定性的;果断的) victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated(vi.退却) eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged(v.(使)陷入泥潭;阻碍) down(陷入泥潭;不能前进)

5. In August, the French and Russian armies engaged(v.与……交战;占用(时间、精力等)) at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial(a.至关重要的) decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter?

6. Napoleon took the gamble(n.赌博) of pressing on\ahend((不顾困难)继续进行) to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall(n.黄昏;傍晚), thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

7. Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation(n.占领;职业) of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fled their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of the city. Napoleon offered a truce(n.停战) to Alexander I, but the Russian czar(n.沙皇) knew he could bide(v.) his time(等待时机): "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us."

8. Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in Moscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat from Moscow.

9. The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launched hit-and-run(a.打了就跑的) attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus(prep.零下;减 a.负的;减的;稍低的) 4 degrees Celsius(a.(温度)摄氏(的)). On November 3, the winter's first snow came. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon(n.大炮;火炮;机关炮) became stuck in the snow. Equipment had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dragged on(缓慢费力地走;拖延), leaving the dead along every mile.

10. As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating French by burning the bridges over the swollen(a.涨水的;肿胀的;扩大的) river. But Napoleon, by a stroke(n.一次;一回;一下;一击) of luck, was able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered(a.衣衫褴褛的) survivors limped(n.一瘸一拐地走;跛行) toward Vilna.

11. Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened(v.(使)虚弱;(使)变弱) French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance(n.联盟) and attacked these stragglers(n.落伍士兵;掉队者). In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated(v.退位) and went into exile(n. vt.流放;流亡), his empire(n.帝国) at an end.

Hitler's Invasion

12. By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi(n.纳粹,国设党分子) Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, without a declaration(n.宣布;宣言) of war, Hitler began an invasion(n.入侵,侵略) of the Soviet Union that was the largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected the campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg(n.闪电战), or "lightning(a.闪电似的,极快的 n.闪电) war," tactics(n.战术) that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thrusts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine.

13. Caught off guard(趁某人不备) by the invasion, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin instructed(vt.指示,命令;讲授) the Russian people to "scorch(vt.烧光,使成焦土;烤焦) the earth" in front of the German invaders. Farms and factories were burned, destroyed, or rendered(vt.使成为) useless. During the first ten weeks of the invasion, the Germans pushed the front eastward, and the Russians suffered more than a million casualties(n.伤亡人员;死伤者).

14. In the north, the Germans closed in on Leningrad. Despite great suffering, however, the people of Leningrad refused to surrender. As the battle of Leningrad dragged on into winter, the city's situation became desperate. As food ran out, people died from hunger and disease. By the middle of the winter of 1941-1942, nearly four thousand people starved to death every day. Close to one million people died as a result of the

siege(n.围困).

15. In the center of Russia, Hitler's goal was the capture of Moscow. Because the Germans had anticipated a quick victory, they had made no plans for winter supplies. October arrived with heavy rains. "General Mud(n.烂泥)" slowed down the movement of the Germans' lightning attack.

16. As Hitler's armies drew closer and closer to Moscow, an early, severe winter settled over the Soviet Union, the harshest in years. Temperatures dropped to minus 48 degrees Celsius. Heavy snows fell. The German soldiers, completely unprepared for the Russian winter, froze in their light summer uniforms. The German tanks lay buried in the heavy snowbanks. The Russian winter brought the German offensive(n.进攻 a.进攻的;冒犯的;使人不快的) to a halt(使停止).

17. By the summer of 1942, Hitler had launched two new offensives. In the south, the Germans captured Sevastopol. Hitler then pushed east to Stalingrad, a great industrial city that stretched for 48 kilometers along the Volga River. Despite great suffering, Soviet defenders refused to give up Stalingrad.

18. In November 1942, the Russians launched a counterattack(n.反攻). With little or no shelter from the winter cold in and around Stalingrad, German troops(n.部队) were further weakened by a lack of food and supplies. Not until January 1943 did the Germans give up their siege. Of the three hundred thousand Germans attacking Stalingrad, only ninety thousand starving soldiers were left. The loss of the battle for Stalingrad finally turned the tide(n.潮汐;潮流,趋势) against(彻底改变形势(造成对……不利),扭转潮流) Hitler. The German victories were over, thanks in part to the Russian winter.

19. During 1943 and 1944, the Soviet armies pushed the German front back toward the west. In the north, the Red Army broke the three-year siege of Leningrad with a surprise attack on January 15, 1944. Within two weeks, the heroic(a.英雄的;英勇的) survivors of Leningrad saw their invaders depart. By March 1944, the Ukraine farming region(n.地区) was again in Soviet hands. On May 9, 1944, Sevastopol was liberated from the Germans. The Russians were now heading for Berlin.

20. For Hitler, the invasion of the Soviet Union had turned into a military disaster. For the Russian people, it brought unspeakable suffering. The total Soviet dead in World War II reached almost 23 million.

Russia's Icy Defender

21. The elements of nature must be reckon(v.计算;认为)ed with(被加以考虑) in any military campaign. Napoleon and Hitler both underestimated(vt.低估) the severity(n.猛烈;严重) of the Russian winter. Snow, ice, and freezing temperatures took their toll (造成损失(伤亡等))on both invading armies. For the Russian people, the winter was an icy defender.

II. Translation

攻势已经持续了三天,但是我们并没有取得多少进展。我们在前线与敌人交战的部队遇到了强力的抵抗。师长(division commander)命令我们营(battalion)绕到敌人后方发起突然袭击。然而,要绕到敌人后

方,我们必须越过一片沼泽地(marshland)。我们很多人担心会陷入泥潭中。我们营长决定冒一下险。我们在夜幕掩盖下出发,不顾困难,奋勇向前。幸运的是,夜间温度突然降到摄氏零下20度,烂泥地都结上了冰。由于这寒冷的天气,我们于天亮前到达并从敌人后方发起进攻。这一下扭转了战局。敌人没有戒备,不久便投降了。

The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a

surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we

might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We

started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck,

the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered.

⑶Get the Job You Want

1I run a manufacturing company with about 350 employees, and I often do the interviewing(n.面试) and hiring myself. I like talking to potential salespeople, because they're our link to customers.

2 When a recent college graduate came into my office not too long ago looking for a sales job, I asked him what he had done to prepare for the interview. He said he'd read something about us somewhere.

3 Had he called anyone at Mackay Envelope Corporation to find out more about us? No. Had he called our suppliers(n.供应厂商;供应者)? Our customers? No.

4 Had he checked with his university to see if there were any graduates working at Mackay whom he could interview? Had he asked any friends to grill(vt.盘问;烧烤) him in a mock interview? Did he go to the library to find newspaper clippings(n.简报) on us?

5 Did he write a letter beforehand to tell us about himself, what he was doing to prepare for the interview and why he'd be right for the job? Was he planning to follow up(采取进一步行动) the interview with another letter indicating his eagerness(n.渴望;热切) to join us? Would the letter be in our hands(在某人手中,为某人所拥有) within 24 hours of the meeting, possibly even hand-delivered(vt.亲手送交)?

6 The answer to every question was the same: no. That left me with only one other question: How well prepared would this person be if he were to call on a prospective(a.

可能成为的;预期的) customer for us? I already knew the answer.

7 As I see it(在我看来), there are four keys to getting hired:

8 1. Prepare to win. "If you miss one day of practice, you notice the difference," the saying goes(俗话说,常言道) among musicians. "If you miss two days of practice, the critics notice the difference. If you miss three days of practice, the audience notices the difference."

9 When we watch a world-class(a.世界级的) musician or a top athlete(n.运动员), we don't see the years of preparation that enabled him or her to become great. The Michael Jordans of the world have talent, yes, but they're also the first ones on and the last ones off the basketball court. The same preparation applies in every form of human endeavor(n.努力,尽力 vt.努力(做某事),尽力(做某事)). If you want the job, you have to prepare to win it.

10 When I graduated from college, the odds were good that I would have the same job for the rest of my life. And that's how it worked out. But getting hired is no longer a once-in-a-lifetime(a.一生中仅有一次的) experience. Employment(n.职业,就业) experts believe that today's graduates could face as many as ten job changes during their careers.11 That may sound like a lot of pressure. But if you're prepared, the pressure is on the other folks -- the ones who haven't done their homework(事先做好准备).

12 You won't get every job you go after(努力争取,追求). The best salespeople don't close every sale. Michael Jordan makes barely half of his field-goal(n.(篮球)投篮得分) attempts. But it takes no longer to prepare well for one interview than to wander in half-prepared(a.未准备好的) for five. And your prospects for success will be many times better.

13 2. Never stop learning. Recently I played a doubles tennis match paired with a 90-year-old. I wondered how things would work out; I shouldn't have. We hammered our opponents 6-1, 6-1!

14 As we were switching sides to play a third set, he said to me, "Do you mind if I play the backhand(a.(体育)反手的) court? I always like to work on my weaknesses." What a fantastic example of a person who has never stopped learning. Incidentally(adv.顺便提及的,附带的), we won the third set 6-1.

15 As we walked off the court, my 90-year-old partner(n.搭档,同伙) chuckled(vi.咯咯地笑) and said, "I thought you'd like to know about my number-one ranking in doubles in the United States in my age bracket(n.类,档次;托架,撑架), 85 and up!" He wasn't thinking 90; he wasn't even thinking 85. He was thinking number one.

16 You can do the same if you work on your weaknesses and develop your strengths. To be able to compete, you've got to keep learning all your life.

17 3. Believe in yourself, even when no one else does. Do you remember the four-minute mile? Athletes had been trying to do it for hundreds of years and finally decided it was physically(adv.身体上的;按自然法则的) impossible for humans. Our bone structure(n.构造,结构) was all wrong, our lung(n.肺) power inadequate.

篇三:全新版大学英语综合教程4课文原文及翻译

They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, that nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wrong. 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。

The Icy Defender

Nila B. Smith

1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.

冰雪卫士

奈拉·B·史密斯

1812年,法国皇帝拿破仑·波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。

2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

1941年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒的军事实力堪称无敌。他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。希特勒希望速战速决,但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一臂之力。

Napoleon's Campaign

3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks.

拿破仑发起的战役

1812年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵60万。这些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,装备精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在5个星期内攻下俄国。

4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines.

不久,拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发生。令他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大军紧追不舍,但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。

5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat

farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到了8月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天?

6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在448公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812年9月7日,法俄两军在莫斯科以西112公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3万名法国士兵以及4.4万名俄国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战场上。

7 Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fled their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of the city. Napoleon offered a truce to Alexander I, but the Russian czar knew he could bide his time: "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us."

俄国军队再次撤往安全之处。拿破仑顺利进入莫斯科,然而,对该市的占领成为毫无意义的胜利。俄国人弃城而走。法国人进城不久,一场熊熊大火烧毁了整个城市的三分之二。拿破仑向亚历山大一世提出停战,但沙皇深知他可以等待时机:“且让俄罗斯的严冬为我们战斗吧。”

8 Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in Moscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat from Moscow. 拿破仑很快意识到,他无法在冬天向远在莫斯科的军队供应粮草、提供御寒衣物和宿营之地。1812年10月,他命令大军撤出莫斯科。

9 The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus 4 degrees Celsius. On November 3, the winter's first snow came. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon became stuck in the snow. Equipment had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dragged on, leaving the dead along every mile. 法军的撤离成为一场噩梦。俄国人出没于田野与森林,采用打了就跑的战术,向法国人发起攻击。刚出莫斯科城,气温就降到摄氏零下4度。11月3日降下初雪。困乏的马匹倒地而死。大炮陷入雪中。装备只得被用作燃料焚烧。士兵们染病冻死。法国士兵拖着脚步行进,一路上留下无数死尸。

10 As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating French by burning the bridges over the swollen river. But Napoleon, by a stroke of luck, was able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers

escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered survivors limped toward Vilna.

正当俄罗斯军队集聚兵力之时,法国人却不得不逃离俄国,以避免注定的失败。在别列兹那河,俄国人焚烧了涨水的河道上的桥梁,差点将后撤的法军困于河边。侥幸的是,拿破仑居然突击造起两座桥。成千上万法国士兵得以逃脱,但却损失了5万人。渡过别列兹拿河,溃不成军的幸存者一瘸一拐地向维尔纽行进。

11 Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance and attacked these stragglers. In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end.

拿破仑发兵60万进入俄国,只有不到10万士兵返回。元气大伤的法国军队在欧洲继续西撤。不久,英国、奥地利、俄国以及普鲁士组成强大的联盟,攻击这些散兵游勇。1814年3月,巴黎被攻占。拿破仑退位去过流放生活,他缔造的帝国随之灭亡。

Hitler's Invasion

12 By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, without a declaration of war, Hitler began an invasion of the Soviet Union that was the largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected the campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," tactics that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thrusts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine.

希特勒的入侵

到1941年初,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒已经控制了欧洲大部分地区。希特勒的德意志帝国的东部与苏联毗邻。1941年6月22日,希特勒不宣而战,入侵苏联,发动了历史上规模最大的一场陆地战役。希特勒自信能速战速决,预计这一战役不会超过3个月。他计划采用征服了欧洲其余地区的闪电式战略。入侵计划包含三大目标:向列宁格勒与莫斯科进攻,并横扫乌克兰。

13 Caught off guard by the invasion, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin instructed the Russian people to "scorch the earth" in front of the German invaders. Farms and factories were burned, destroyed, or rendered useless. During the first ten weeks of the invasion, the Germans pushed the front eastward, and the Russians suffered more than a million casualties.

苏联领导人约瑟夫·斯大林被打了个措手不及,他指示全国人民在德国入侵者到来之前实行“焦土”政策。农场和工厂被焚烧毁坏,或被弄得无法运转。在入侵的最初10个星期内,德国人一路东进,俄国人伤亡人数多达一百多万。

14 In the north, the Germans closed in on Leningrad. Despite great suffering, however, the people of Leningrad refused to surrender. As the battle of Leningrad

dragged on into winter, the city's situation became desperate. As food ran out, people died from hunger and disease. By the middle of the winter of 1941-1942, nearly four thousand people starved to death every day. Close to one million people died as a result of the siege.

在北方,德国人包围了列宁格勒。尽管忍受着极大困苦,列宁格勒的人民绝不投降。列宁格勒保卫战一直持续到冬季,此时该市的处境变得危急。由于食品匮乏,人们死于饥饿与疾病。到了1941年和1942年之间的寒冬,几乎每天有4千人死于饥饿。列宁格勒之围造成近百万人死亡。

15 In the center of Russia, Hitler's goal was the capture of Moscow. Because the Germans had anticipated a quick victory, they had made no plans for winter supplies. October arrived with heavy rains. "General Mud" slowed down the movement of the Germans' lightning attack.

在俄国中部,希特勒的目标是占领莫斯科。由于德国人指望速战速决,他们没有准备过冬的补给。10月来临,大雨不停。“泥泞将军”拖延了德国人闪电式进攻的行动。

16 As Hitler's armies drew closer and closer to Moscow, an early, severe winter settled over the Soviet Union, the harshest in years. Temperatures dropped to minus 48 degrees Celsius. Heavy snows fell. The German soldiers, completely unprepared for the Russian winter, froze in their light summer uniforms. The German tanks lay buried in the heavy snowbanks. The Russian winter brought the German offensive to a halt.

正当希特勒的军队逼近莫斯科时,寒冷的冬季早早地降临苏联,那是多年不遇的严寒。气温降到摄氏零下48度。大雪纷飞。对俄国的严寒冬季毫无思想准备的德国士兵身着单薄的夏装,一个个被冻伤。德国人的坦克掩埋在深深的雪堆中。俄罗斯的冬季阻止了德国人的攻势。

17 By the summer of 1942, Hitler had launched two new offensives. In the south, the Germans captured Sevastopol. Hitler then pushed east to Stalingrad, a great industrial city that stretched for 48 kilometers along the Volga River. Despite great suffering, Soviet defenders refused to give up Stalingrad.

到1942夏天,希特勒又发起两场新的攻势。在南方,德国人占领了塞瓦斯托波尔。希特勒随后向东推进到斯大林格勒,那是沿伏尔加河绵延48公里的一座大工业城市。尽管艰苦卓绝,苏联抵抗者拒绝放弃斯大林格勒。

18 In November 1942, the Russians launched a counterattack. With little or no shelter from the winter cold in and around Stalingrad, German troops were further weakened by a lack of food and supplies. Not until January 1943 did the Germans give up their siege. Of the three hundred thousand Germans attacking Stalingrad, only ninety thousand starving soldiers were left. The loss of the battle for Stalingrad finally turned the tide against Hitler. The German victories were over, thanks in part to the Russian winter.

1942年11月,俄国人发起了一场反攻。德国军队在斯大林格勒城内外几乎没有挡风避寒的地方,食品和补给的匮乏更使其元气大伤。直到1943年1月德国人才放弃围城。进攻斯大林格勒的30万德国人只剩下9万忍饥挨饿的士兵。斯大林格勒一战的失利最终使希特勒时乖运蹇。

部分地由于俄罗斯的冬季,德国人走向失败。

19 During 1943 and 1944, the Soviet armies pushed the German front back toward the west. In the north, the Red Army broke the three-year siege of Leningrad with a surprise attack on January 15, 1944. Within two weeks, the heroic survivors of Leningrad saw their invaders depart. By March 1944, the Ukraine farming region was again in Soviet hands. On May 9, 1944, Sevastopol was liberated from the Germans. The Russians were now heading for Berlin.

在1943年与1944年期间,苏联军队将德军阵线往西逼退。在北方,1944年1月15日,红军发起突然袭击,解除了列宁格勒长达3年之久的围困。列宁格勒那些英勇无畏的幸存者看着入侵者在两个星期内全部撤离。到了1944年3月,乌克兰的农村又回到了苏维埃手中。1944年5月9日,塞瓦斯托波尔从德国人手中被解放出来。至此,俄国人向柏林进发。

20 For Hitler, the invasion of the Soviet Union had turned into a military disaster. For the Russian people, it brought unspeakable suffering. The total Soviet dead in World War II reached almost 23 million.

就希特勒而言,对苏联的入侵成为一场军事灾难。对俄罗斯人民来说,这场入侵带来了无法形容的苦难。苏维埃在第二次世界大战中死亡的人数几乎达到2300万。

Russia's Icy Defender

21 The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign. Napoleon and Hitler both underestimated the severity of the Russian winter. Snow, ice, and freezing temperatures took their toll on both invading armies. For the Russian people, the winter was an icy defender.

俄罗斯的冰雪卫士

任何军事行动都必须考虑到自然的因素。拿破仑和希特勒都低估了俄罗斯冬季的严酷。冰雪和极低的气温使两支侵略军付出惨重的代价。对俄罗斯人民而言,严冬是他们的冰雪卫士。

Smart cars that can see, hear, feel, smell, and talk? And drive on their own? This may sound like a dream, but the computer revolution is set to turn it into a reality. 能看、能听、有知觉、具嗅觉、会说话的智能汽车?还能自动驾驶?这听起来或许像是在做梦,但计算机革命正致力于把这一切变为现实。

Smart Cars

Michio Kaku

1 Even the automobile industry, which has remained largely unchanged for the last seventy years, is about to feel the effects of the computer revolution. 智能汽车

篇四:全新版大学英语综合教程4课文原文及翻译

UNIT 1

They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, that nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wrong. 人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。

The Icy Defender

Nila B. Smith

1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.

冰雪卫士

奈拉·B·史密斯

1812年,法国皇帝拿破仑·波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。

2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

1941年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒的军事实力堪称无敌。他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。希特勒希望速战速决,但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一臂之力。

Napoleon's Campaign

3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks.

拿破仑发起的战役

1812年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵60万。这些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,装备精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在5个星期内攻下俄国。

4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines.

不久,拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发生。令他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大军紧追不舍,

但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。

5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到了8月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天?

6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Mosco

大学英语第四册课文综合教程

w, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在448公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812年9月7日,法俄两军在莫斯科以西112公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3万名法国士兵以及4.4万名俄国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战场上。

7 Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fled their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of the city. Napoleon offered a truce to Alexander I, but the Russian czar knew he could bide his time: "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us."

俄国军队再次撤往安全之处。拿破仑顺利进入莫斯科,然而,对该市的占领成为毫无意义的胜利。俄国人弃城而走。法国人进城不久,一场熊熊大火烧毁了整个城市的三分之二。拿破仑向亚历山大一世提出停战,但沙皇深知他可以等待时机:“且让俄罗斯的严冬为我们战斗吧。”

8 Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in Moscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat from Moscow. 拿破仑很快意识到,他无法在冬天向远在莫斯科的军队供应粮草、提供御寒衣物和宿营之地。1812年10月,他命令大军撤出莫斯科。

9 The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus 4 degrees Celsius. On November 3, the winter's first snow came. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon became stuck in the snow. Equipment had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dragged on, leaving the dead along every mile. 法军的撤离成为一场噩梦。俄国人出没于田野与森林,采用打了就跑的战术,向法国人发起攻击。刚出莫斯科城,气温就降到摄氏零下4度。11月3日降下初雪。困乏的马匹倒地而死。大炮陷入雪中。装备只得被用作燃料焚烧。士兵们染病冻死。法国士兵拖着脚步行进,一路上留下无数死尸。

10 As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia

to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating French by burning the bridges over the swollen river. But Napoleon, by a stroke of luck, was able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered survivors limped toward Vilna.

正当俄罗斯军队集聚兵力之时,法国人却不得不逃离俄国,以避免注定的失败。在别列兹那河,俄国人焚烧了涨水的河道上的桥梁,差点将后撤的法军困于河边。侥幸的是,拿破仑居然突击造起两座桥。成千上万法国士兵得以逃脱,但却损失了5万人。渡过别列兹拿河,溃不成军的幸存者一瘸一拐地向维尔纽行进。

11 Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance and attacked these stragglers. In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end.

拿破仑发兵60万进入俄国,只有不到10万士兵返回。元气大伤的法国军队在欧洲继续西撤。不久,英国、奥地利、俄国以及普鲁士组成强大的联盟,攻击这些散兵游勇。1814年3月,巴黎被攻占。拿破仑退位去过流放生活,他缔造的帝国随之灭亡。

Hitler's Invasion

12 By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, without a declaration of war, Hitler began an invasion of the Soviet Union that was the largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected the campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," tactics that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thrusts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine.

希特勒的入侵

到1941年初,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒已经控制了欧洲大部分地区。希特勒的德意志帝国的东部与苏联毗邻。1941年6月22日,希特勒不宣而战,入侵苏联,发动了历史上规模最大的一场陆地战役。希特勒自信能速战速决,预计这一战役不会超过3个月。他计划采用征服了欧洲其余地区的闪电式战略。入侵计划包含三大目标:向列宁格勒与莫斯科进攻,并横扫乌克兰。

13 Caught off guard by the invasion, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin instructed the Russian people to "scorch the earth" in front of the German invaders. Farms and factories were burned, destroyed, or rendered useless. During the first ten weeks of the invasion, the Germans pushed the front eastward, and the Russians suffered more than a million casualties.

苏联领导人约瑟夫·斯大林被打了个措手不及,他指示全国人民在德国入侵者到来之前实行“焦土”政策。农场和工厂被焚烧毁坏,或被弄得无法运转。在入侵的最初10个星期内,德国人一路东进,俄国人伤亡人数多达一百多万。

14 In the north, the Germans closed in on Leningrad. Despite great suffering, however, the people of Leningrad refused to surrender. As the battle of Leningrad dragged on into winter, the city's situation became desperate. As food ran out, people died from hunger and disease. By the middle of the winter of 1941-1942, nearly four thousand people starved to death every day. Close to one million people died as a result of the siege.

在北方,德国人包围了列宁格勒。尽管忍受着极大困苦,列宁格勒的人民绝不投降。列宁格勒保卫战一直持续到冬季,此时该市的处境变得危急。由于食品匮乏,人们死于饥饿与疾病。到了1941年和1942年之间的寒冬,几乎每天有4千人死于饥饿。列宁格勒之围造成近百万人死亡。

15 In the center of Russia, Hitler's goal was the capture of Moscow. Because the Germans had anticipated a quick victory, they had made no plans for winter supplies. October arrived with heavy rains. "General Mud" slowed down the movement of the Germans' lightning attack.

在俄国中部,希特勒的目标是占领莫斯科。由于德国人指望速战速决,他们没有准备过冬的补给。10月来临,大雨不停。“泥泞将军”拖延了德国人闪电式进攻的行动。

16 As Hitler's armies drew closer and closer to Moscow, an early, severe winter settled over the Soviet Union, the harshest in years. Temperatures dropped to minus 48 degrees Celsius. Heavy snows fell. The German soldiers, completely unprepared for the Russian winter, froze in their light summer uniforms. The German tanks lay buried in the heavy snowbanks. The Russian winter brought the German offensive to a halt.

正当希特勒的军队逼近莫斯科时,寒冷的冬季早早地降临苏联,那是多年不遇的严寒。气温降到摄氏零下48度。大雪纷飞。对俄国的严寒冬季毫无思想准备的德国士兵身着单薄的夏装,一个个被冻伤。德国人的坦克掩埋在深深的雪堆中。俄罗斯的冬季阻止了德国人的攻势。

17 By the summer of 1942, Hitler had launched two new offensives. In the south, the Germans captured Sevastopol. Hitler then pushed east to Stalingrad, a great industrial city that stretched for 48 kilometers along the Volga River. Despite great suffering, Soviet defenders refused to give up Stalingrad.

到1942夏天,希特勒又发起两场新的攻势。在南方,德国人占领了塞瓦斯托波尔。希特勒随后向东推进到斯大林格勒,那是沿伏尔加河绵延48公里的一座大工业城市。尽管艰苦卓绝,苏联抵抗者拒绝放弃斯大林格勒。

18 In November 1942, the Russians launched a counterattack. With little or no shelter from the winter cold in and around Stalingrad, German troops were further weakened by a lack of food and supplies. Not until January 1943 did the Germans give up their siege. Of the three hundred thousand Germans attacking Stalingrad, only ninety thousand starving soldiers were left. The loss of the battle for Stalingrad finally turned the tide against Hitler. The German victories were over, thanks in part to the Russian winter.

1942年11月,俄国人发起了一场反攻。德国军队在斯大林格勒城内外几乎没有挡风避寒的地方,食品和补给的匮乏更使其元气大伤。直到1943年1月德国人才放弃围城。进攻斯大林格勒的30万德国人只剩下9万忍饥挨饿的士兵。斯大林格勒一战的失利最终使希特勒时乖运蹇。部分地由于俄罗斯的冬季,德国人走向失败。

19 During 1943 and 1944, the Soviet armies pushed the German front back toward the west. In the north, the Red Army broke the three-year siege of Leningrad with a surprise attack on January 15, 1944. Within two weeks, the heroic survivors of Leningrad saw their invaders depart. By March 1944, the Ukraine farming region was again in Soviet hands. On May 9, 1944, Sevastopol was liberated from the Germans. The Russians were now heading for Berlin.

在1943年与1944年期间,苏联军队将德军阵线往西逼退。在北方,1944年1月15日,红军发起突然袭击,解除了列宁格勒长达3年之久的围困。列宁格勒那些英勇无畏的幸存者看着入侵者在两个星期内全部撤离。到了1944年3月,乌克兰的农村又回到了苏维埃手中。1944年5月9日,塞瓦斯托波尔从德国人手中被解放出来。至此,俄国人向柏林进发。

20 For Hitler, the invasion of the Soviet Union had turned into a military disaster. For the Russian people, it brought unspeakable suffering. The total Soviet dead in World War II reached almost 23 million.

就希特勒而言,对苏联的入侵成为一场军事灾难。对俄罗斯人民来说,这场入侵带来了无法形容的苦难。苏维埃在第二次世界大战中死亡的人数几乎达到2300万。

Russia's Icy Defender

21 The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign. Napoleon and Hitler both underestimated the severity of the Russian winter. Snow, ice, and freezing temperatures took their toll on both invading armies. For the Russian people, the winter was an icy defender.

俄罗斯的冰雪卫士

任何军事行动都必须考虑到自然的因素。拿破仑和希特勒都低估了俄罗斯冬季的严酷。冰雪和极低的气温使两支侵略军付出惨重的代价。对俄罗斯人民而言,严冬是他们的冰雪卫士。

UNIT 2

Smart Cars

Michio Kaku

Smart cars that can see, hear, feel, smell, and talk? And drive on their own? This may sound like a dream, but the computer revolution is set to turn it into a reality. 能看、能听、有知觉、具嗅觉、会说话的智能汽车?还能自动驾驶?这听起来或许像是在做梦,但计算机革命正致力于把这一切变为现实。

篇五:全新版大学英语第二版综合教程4课文原文及翻译

They say that pride comes before a fall. In the case of both Napoleon and Hitler, the many victories they enjoyed led them to believe that anything was possible, that nothing could stand in their way. Russia's icy defender was to prove them wrong.

人道是骄兵必败。就拿拿破仑和希特勒两人来说吧,他们所向披靡,便以为自己战无不胜,不可阻挡。但俄罗斯的冰雪卫士证明他们错了。

The Icy Defender

Nila B. Smith

1 In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, led his Grand Army into Russia. He was prepared for the fierce resistance of the Russian people defending their homeland. He was prepared for the long march across Russian soil to Moscow, the capital city. But he was not prepared for the devastating enemy that met him in Moscow -- the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.

冰雪卫士

奈拉·B·史密斯

1812年,法国皇帝拿破仑·波拿巴率大军入侵俄罗斯。他准备好俄罗斯人民会为保卫祖国而奋勇抵抗。他准备好在俄罗斯广袤的国土上要经过长途跋涉才能进军首都莫斯科。但他没有料到在莫斯科他会遭遇劲敌—俄罗斯阴冷凄苦的寒冬。

2 In 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, launched an attack against the Soviet Union, as Russia then was called. Hitler's military might was unequaled. His war machine had mowed down resistance in most of Europe. Hitler expected a short campaign but, like Napoleon before him, was taught a painful lesson. The Russian winter again came to the aid of the Soviet soldiers.

1941年,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒进攻当时被称作苏联的俄罗斯。希特勒的军事实

力堪称无敌。他的战争机器扫除了欧洲绝大部分地区的抵抗。希特勒希望速战速决,但是,就像在他之前的拿破仑一样,他得到的是痛苦的教训。仍是俄罗斯的冬天助了苏维埃士兵一臂之力。

Napoleon's Campaign

3 In the spring of 1812, Napoleon assembled an army of six hundred thousand men on the borders of Russia. The soldiers were well trained, efficient, and well equipped. This military force was called the Grand Army. Napoleon, confident of a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks.

拿破仑发起的战役

1812年春,拿破仑在俄国边境屯兵60万。这些士兵受过良好训练,作战力强,装备精良。这支军队被称为大军。拿破仑对马到成功充满自信,预言要在5个星期内攻下俄国。 4 Shortly afterwards, Napoleon's army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The quick, decisive victory that Napoleon expected never happened. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. The Grand Army followed, but its advance march soon became bogged down by slow-moving supply lines. 不久,拿破仑的大军渡过涅曼河进入俄国。拿破仑期盼着的速决速胜迟迟没有发生。令他吃惊的是,俄国人并不奋起抵抗。相反,他们一路东撤,沿途焚毁庄稼和民居。大军紧追不舍,但它的长驱直入很快由于粮草运输缓慢而停顿下来。

5 In August, the French and Russian armies engaged at Smolensk, in a battle that left over ten thousand dead on each side. Yet, the Russians were again able to retreat farther into Russian territory. Napoleon had won no decisive victory. He was now faced with a crucial decision. Should he continue to pursue the Russian army? Or should he keep his army in Smolensk for the approaching winter? 到

了8月,法俄两军在斯摩棱斯克交战,这一战役中,双方各有上万人阵亡。可是,俄国人仍能在自己的国土上继续后撤。拿破仑未能取得决定性的胜利。此刻他面临着一个重要抉择。是继续追击俄国军队,还是把军队驻扎在斯摩棱斯克,在那儿度过将到的冬天? 6 Napoleon took the gamble of pressing on to Moscow, 448 kilometers away. On September 7, 1812, the French and Russian armies met in fierce battle at Borodino, 112 kilometers west of Moscow. By nightfall, thirty thousand French and forty-four thousand Russians lay dead or wounded on the battlefield.

拿破仑孤注一掷,决定向远在448公里之外的莫斯科进发。1812年9月7日,法俄两军在莫斯科以西112公里外的鲍罗季诺激战。夜幕降临时,3万名法国士兵以及4.4万名俄国士兵或伤或亡,倒在了战场上。

7 Again, the Russian army retreated to safety. Napoleon had a clear path to Moscow, but the occupation of the city became an empty victory. The Russians fled their capital. Soon after the French arrived, a raging fire destroyed two-thirds of the city. Napoleon offered a truce to Alexander I, but the Russian czar knew he could bide his time: "We shall let the Russian winter fight the war for us." 俄国军队再次撤往安全之处。拿破仑顺利进入莫斯科,然而,对该市的占领成为毫无意义的胜利。俄国人弃城而走。法国人进城不久,一场熊熊大火烧毁了整个城市的三分之

二。拿破仑向亚历山大一世提出停战,但沙皇深知他可以等待时机:“且让俄罗斯的严冬为我们战斗吧。”

8 Napoleon soon realized he could not feed, clothe, and quarter his army in Moscow during the winter. In October 1812, he ordered his Grand Army to retreat from Moscow.

拿破仑很快意识到,他无法在冬天向远在莫斯科的军队供应粮草、提供御寒衣物和宿营之地。1812年10月,他命令大军撤出莫斯科。

9 The French retreat turned into a nightmare. From fields and forests, the Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. A short distance from Moscow, the temperature had already dropped to minus 4 degrees Celsius. On November 3, the winter's first snow came. Exhausted horses fell dead in their tracks. Cannon became stuck in the snow. Equipment had to be burned for fuel. Soldiers took ill and froze to death. The French soldiers dragged on, leaving the dead along every mile.

法军的撤离成为一场噩梦。俄国人出没于田野与森林,采用打了就跑的战术,向法国人发起攻击。刚出莫斯科城,气温就降到摄氏零下4度。11月3日降下初雪。困乏的马匹倒地而死。大炮陷入雪中。装备只得被用作燃料焚烧。士兵们染病冻死。法国士兵拖着脚步行进,一路上留下无数死尸。

10 As the Russian army was gathering its strength, the French had to flee Russia to avoid certain defeat. At the Berezina River, the Russians nearly trapped the retreating French by burning the bridges over the swollen river. But Napoleon, by a stroke of luck, was able to build two new bridges. Thousands of French soldiers escaped, but at the cost of fifty thousand dead. Once across the Berezina, the tattered survivors limped toward Vilna.

正当俄罗斯军队集聚兵力之时,法国人却不得不逃离俄国,以避免注定的失败。在别列兹那河,俄国人焚烧了涨水的河道上的桥梁,差点将后撤的法军困于河边。侥幸的是,拿破仑居然突击造起两座桥。成千上万法国士兵得以逃脱,但却损失了5万人。渡过别列

兹拿河,溃不成军的幸存者一瘸一拐地向维尔纽行进。

11 Of the six hundred thousand soldiers Napoleon had led into Russia, less than one hundred thousand came back. The weakened French army continued its retreat westward across Europe. Soon, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia formed a powerful alliance and attacked these stragglers. In March 1814, Paris was captured. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end. 拿破仑发兵60万进入俄国,只有不到10万士兵返回。元气大伤的法国军队在欧洲继续西撤。不久,英国、奥地利、俄国以及普鲁士组成强大的联盟,攻击这些散兵游勇。1814年3月,巴黎被攻占。拿破仑退位去过流放生活,他缔造的帝国随之灭亡。

Hitler's Invasion

12 By early 1941, Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany, had seized control of most of Europe. To the east of Hitler's German empire was the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, without a declaration of war, Hitler began an invasion of the Soviet Union that was the largest military land campaign in history. Confident of a quick victory, Hitler expected the campaign to last no longer than three months. He planned to use the blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," tactics that had defeated the rest of Europe. The invasion had three broad thrusts: against Leningrad and Moscow and through the Ukraine.

希特勒的入侵

到1941年初,纳粹德国元首阿道夫·希特勒已经控制了欧洲大部分地区。希特勒的德意志帝国的东部与苏联毗邻。1941年6月22日,希特勒不宣而战,入侵苏联,发动了历史上