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时间:2016-04-13 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响


Going for Broke

Matea Gold and David Ferrell

1 Rex Coile's life is a narrow box, so dark and confining he wonders how he got trapped inside, whether he'll ever get out.


马泰娅·戈尔德 戴维·费雷尔


2 He never goes to the movies, never sees concerts, never lies on a sunny beach, never travels on vacation, never spends Christmas with his family. Instead, Rex shares floor space in cheap motels with other compulsive gamblers, comforting himself with delusional dreams of jackpots that will magically wipe away three decades of wreckage. He has lost his marriage, his home, his Cadillac, his clothes, his diamond ring. Not least of all, in the card clubs of Southern California, he has lost his pride.


3 Rex no longer feels sorry for himself, not after a 29-year losing streak that has left him scrounging for table scraps to feed his habit. Still, he agonizes over what he has become at 54 and what he might have been.


4 Articulate, intellectual, he talks about existential philosophy, the writings of Camus and Sartre. He was once aneditor at Random House. His mind is so jam packed with tidbits about movies, television, baseball and history that card room regulars call him " Rex Trivia," a name he cherishes for the remnant of self-respect it gives him. "There's a lot of Rexes around these card rooms," he says in a whisper of resignation and sadness.


5 And their numbers are soaring as gambling explodes across America, from the mega-resorts of Las Vegas to the gaming parlors of Indian reservations, from the riverboats along the Mississippi to the corner mini-marts selling lottery tickets. With nearly every state in the union now sanctioning some form of legalized gambling to raise revenues, evidence is mounting that society is paying a steep price, one that some researchers say must be confronted, if not reversed.


6 Never before have bettors blown so much money — a whopping $50.9 billion last year — five

times the amount lost in 1980. That's more than the public spent on movies, theme parks, recorded music and sporting events combined. A substantial share of those gambling losses — an estimated 30% to 40% — pours from the pockets and purses of chronic losers hooked on the adrenaline rush of risking their money, intoxicated by the fast action of gambling's incandescent world.

赌徒以前从来不曾花费如此多的赌金—— 去年的赌输金额高达509亿美元,是1980年赌输金额的5倍,高出公众在电影、主题公园、唱片音乐以及运动项目等方面的消费总额。输掉的赌金中有相当一部分—— 约占30%-40%—— 是从那些常输的赌徒的钱包里掏出来的,赌博带来的兴奋令他们入迷,瞬息万变的赌博世界令他们如痴如醉。

7 Studies place the total number of compulsive gamblers at about 4.4 million, about equal to the nation's ranks of hard-core drug addicts. Another 11 million, known as problem gamblers, teeter on the verge. Since 1990, the number of Gamblers Anonymous groups nationwide has doubled from about 600 to more than 1,200.


8 Compulsive gambling has been linked to child abuse, domestic violence, embezzlement, bogus insurance claims, bankruptcies, welfare fraud and a host of other social and criminal ills. The advent of Internet gambling could lure new legions into wagering beyond their means.


9 Every once in a while, a case is so egregious it makes headlines: A 10-day-old baby girl in South Carolina dies after being left for nearly seven hours in a hot car while her mother plays video poker. A suburban Chicago woman is so desperate for a bankroll to gamble that she allegedly suffocates her 7-week-old daughter 11 days after obtaining a $200,000 life-insurance policy on the baby.


10 Science has begun to uncover clues to compulsive gambling — genetic predispositions that involve chemical receptors in the brain, the same pleasure pathways implicated in drug and alcohol addiction. But no amount of knowledge, no amount of enlightenment, makes the illness any less confounding, any less destructive. What the gamblers cannot understand about themselves is also well beyond the comprehension of family members, who struggle for normality in a world of deceit and madness.

科学研究开始揭示形成嗜赌成癖恶习的线索—— 与大脑中的化学感受器有关的,即与嗜毒、嗜酒同一个快感途径有关的遗传特性。但无论对这一顽症有多少了解有多少认识,人们对它的困惑一点也没有减少,它的破坏性也一点也没有减少。赌徒不明白自己的地方也正是家人所难以理解的地方,他们在一个充满欺骗与疯狂的世界中苦苦追求正常生活。

11 Money starts vanishing: $500 here, $200 there, $800 a couple of weeks later. Where is it? The answers come back vague, nonsensical. It's in the desk at work. A friend borrowed it. It got spent on family dinners, car repairs, loans to in-laws. Exasperated spouses play the sleuth,

combing through pockets, wallets, purses, searching the car. Sometimes the incriminating evidence turns up — a (来自:www.Hn1c.cOm 唯 才教 育网:全新版大学英语5翻译)racing form, lottery scratchers, a map to an Indian casino. Once the secret is uncovered, spouses usually fight the problem alone, bleeding inside, because the stories are too humiliating to share.

钱突然就不知去向:这里用了500美元,那儿花了200美元,两三个星期之后又少了800美元。钱哪去了?回答很含糊,不知所云。在单位的办公桌抽屉里。朋友借去了。家人聚餐花了,修车用了,借给姻亲了。怒不可遏的配偶充当起侦探,把衣袋、皮夹子、钱包翻了个遍,还搜了汽车。有时犯罪证据会暴露—— 赛马小报、刮刮乐、去一家印第安赌场的地图。秘密一旦被揭穿,配偶通常都单独面对问题,独自承受心头巨痛,因为这种事太丢人,没法跟别人说。

12 "Anybody who is living with a compulsive gambler is totally overwhelmed," says Tom Tucker, president of the California Council on Problem Gambling. "They're steeped in anger, resentment, depression, confusion. None of their personal efforts will ever stop a person from their addiction. And they don't really see any hope because compulsive gambling in general is such an under-recognized illness."


13 One Los Angeles woman, whose husband's gambling was tearing at her sanity, says she slept with her fists so tightly clenched that her nails sliced into her palms. She had fantasies of death — first her own, thinking he'd feel sorry for her and stop gambling. Later, she harbored thoughts of turning her rage on her husband. She imagined getting a gun, hiding in the closet and blasting him out of her life.

一个洛杉矶妇女,由于丈夫嗜赌成瘾,自己几乎神经崩溃。她说自己晚上睡觉时双手紧紧握成拳头,指甲把手掌都掐破了。她常常想到死—— 起初是想自己去死,觉得他会为自己伤心,会戒赌。后来,她又想到把怒气转到丈夫身上。她设想自己弄到一支枪,藏在壁橱里,一枪把他从自己的生活中扫出去。

14 "The hurt was so bad I think I would have pulled the trigger," she says. "There were times the pain was so much I thought being in jail, or being in the electric chair, would be less than this."“那种伤害太痛苦了,我想自己真的会扣动扳机,”她说。“有时真的痛苦不堪,觉得哪怕坐牢、上电椅,也不至于那么痛苦。”

15 With drug or alcohol abusers, there is the hope of sobering up, an accomplishment in itself, no matter what problems may have accompanied their addictions. Compulsive gamblers often see no way to purge their urges when suffocating debts suggest only one answer: a hot streak (suicide?). David Phillips, a UC San Diego sociology professor, studied death records from 1982 to 1988 — before legalized gambling exploded across America — and found that people in Vegas, Atlantic City and other gambling meccas showed significantly higher suicide rates than people in non-gambling cities.

吸毒者或酗酒者尚有清醒起来的希望,不管他们的毒瘾、酒瘾造成了什么麻烦,会清醒起来本身就是一项成就。嗜赌成癖的赌徒高筑的债台意味着只有一条出路:赢大奖(或自杀?)。这时,他们往往无法戒除赌瘾。加利福尼亚大学圣地亚哥分校社会学教授戴维·菲利普斯研究了1982-1988年间—— 合法赌博在美国蔓延之前—— 的死亡档案,发现拉斯维加斯、大西洋城和其他赌城的居民的自杀率明显高于没有赌场的城市的居民。

16 Rex Trivia is not about to kill himself, but like most compulsive gamblers, he occasionally thinks

about it. Looking at him, it's hard to imagine he once had a promising future as a smart young New York book editor. His pale eyes are expressionless, his hair yellowish and brittle. In his fifties, his health is failing: emphysema, three lung collapses, a bad aorta, rotting teeth.


17 His plunge has been so dizzying that at one point he agreed to aid another desperate gambler in a run of bank robberies — nine in all, throughout Los Angeles and Orange counties. When the FBI busted him in 1980, he had $50,000 in cash in a dresser drawer and $100,000 in traveler's checks in his refrigerator's vegetable crisper. Rex, who ended up doing a short stint in prison, hasn't seen that kind of money since.

他一直狂赌,结果走投无路,竟然答应协助另一个因绝望而不顾一切的赌徒实施银行抢劫—— 在洛杉矶和桔县共抢了9家银行。1980年联邦调查局逮捕他时,他五斗橱抽屉里有50,000美元现金,还有100,000美元的旅行支票藏在冰箱的蔬菜保鲜格内。结果雷克斯在监狱服了一段时间刑,从此再也没见到过那么多的钱了。

18 At 11 P. M. on a Tuesday night, with a bankroll of $55 — all he has — he is at a poker table in Gardena. With quick, nervous hands he stacks and unstacks his $1 chips. The stack dwindles. Down $30, he talks about leaving, getting some sleep. Midnight comes and goes. Rex starts winning. Three aces. Four threes. Chips pile up — $60, $70. "A shame to go when the cards are falling my way." He checks the time: "I'll go at 2. Win, lose or draw."

一个星期二晚上11点,他揣着55美元——这是他的全部家产—— 坐在了加德纳的一张牌桌前。他两手紧张地把那些1美元的筹码迅速地堆起又弄散。筹码渐渐少了。到剩下30美元时,他说要走了,去睡一会儿。午夜稍纵即逝。雷克斯开始赢了。三张A牌,四张3点。筹码多起来了—— 60美元,70美元。“我牌运那么好,怎么能走。”他看了看时间:“到2点就走,不管是输是赢还是平。”

19 Fate, kismet, luck — the cards keep falling. At 2 A. M., Rex is up $97. He stands, leaves his chips on the table and goes out for a smoke. In the darkness at the edge of the parking lot, he loiters with other regulars, debating with himself whether to grab a bus and quit.

命运,天命加牌运—— 一 路顺势。到了凌晨2点,雷克斯赢了97美元。他站起身,把筹码留在桌上,出去抽烟。他在停车场边上黑暗的地方与别的常客闲站着,心里盘算着要不要坐公共汽车回去算了。

20 "I should go back in there and cash in and get out of here," he says. "That's what I should do."


21 A long pause. Crushing out his cigarette, Rex turns and heads back inside. He has made his decision.


22 "A few more hands."


1. addiction

n. 痴;入迷;嗜好

e.g. I have an addiction to mystery stories

5. go for broke

(infml) risk everything in one determined attempt at sth. 孤注一掷

e.g. The cyclist went for broke at the end of the race

7. compulsive

a. (of people) forced to do sth. by an obsession 强迫性的,上了瘾的

e.g. Compulsive gambling is on the increase.

gamble away 赌下去

The men have been gambling away all night.那些人赌了整整一夜。


He has gambled away half his fortune.


8. gambler

n. person who gambles 赌博者

e.g. A compulsive gambler is someone who cannot stop risking and usually losing their money in the hope of winning a lot more money.





venture a small wager


A wager is a fool’s argument.


vt. & vi. 在(某物)上赌钱,打赌

I am ready to wager a package of cigarettes that he will come.






a hazardous invest-ment


handbookinger n.



Unit 1

PartⅡ TextAOne Writer's Beginnings



当我得知故事书原来是人写出来的,书本原来不是什么大自然的奇迹,不像草那样自生自长时,真是又震惊又失望。不过,姑且不论书本从何而来,我不记得自己有什么时候不爱书—— 书本本身、封面、装订、印着文字的书页,还有油墨味、那种沉甸甸的感觉,以及把书抱在怀里时那种将我征服、令我陶醉的感觉。还没识字,我就想读书了,一心想读所有的书。


除了客厅里有一向被称作“图书室”的书橱,餐厅的窗子下还有几张摆放百科全书的桌子和一个字典架。这里有伴随我们在餐桌旁争论着长大的《韦氏大词典》、《哥伦比亚百科全书》、《康普顿插图百科全书》、《林肯资料文库》,以及后来的《知识库》。“图书馆”书橱里的书没过多久我就能读了—— 我的确读了,全都读了,按着顺序,一排接着一排读,从最上面的书架一直读到最下面的书架。母亲读书最重要的不在获取信息。她是为了享受快乐而埋头读小说。她读狄更斯时的神情简直就像要跟他私奔似的。她少女时代读的小说印在了她心头的,除了狄更斯、司各特和罗伯特?路易斯?斯蒂文森等人的作品之外,还有《简?爱》、《切尔比》、《白衣女士》、《绿厦》和《所罗门王的矿藏》。


我一本接一本阅读摆在我面前的书,读着读着便发现一本又破又旧的书,是我父亲小时候的。书名是《桑福徳与默顿》。我不相信如今还有谁会记得这本书。那是托玛斯?戴在18世纪80年代撰写的一本著名的进行道德教育的故事书,可该书的扉页上并没有提及他;上面写的是《桑福徳与默顿简易本》,玛丽?戈多尔芬著。书中讲的是一个富孩子和一个穷孩子与他们老师巴洛先生之间的冗长的谈话,其间穿插着戏剧性场面—— 分别写了富孩子和穷孩子如何发火、如何获救。书末讲的道德寓意不是一条,而是两条,都印在环形图案里:“不管发生什么,该做的就去做”,还有“想做伟人,必须先学会做个好人”。 这本书没了封面,封底用几条纸片粘牢,有好几层,如今都泛黄了,书页上污迹斑斑,边角处都破碎了;书中花哨的插图脱了页,但都保存良好,夹在书里。即使在少不更事的童年,我就觉得那是我父亲小时候拥有的惟一一本书。他一直珍藏着这本书,或许还枕着这本没了封面的书睡觉:他7岁时就没了母亲。我父亲从来没跟自己的孩子提起过这本书,但他从俄亥俄一路把它带到我们的家,把它放进我们的书橱。

母亲则从西弗吉尼亚带来了那套狄更斯:那套书看上去也惨不忍睹—— 她告诉我,我还没出生,这些书就历经水火之灾,可现在它们还是整齐地排列在那儿—— 后来我意识到,是等着我去读。

从记事起我就收到给自己的书了,那是在生日时,还有圣诞节早晨。我父母真的是送给我再多的书都嫌不够。在我6岁或7岁生日时—— 那是在我自己能读书之后—— 他们送我一套10卷本的《我们的神奇世界》,为此,准是作了不少牺牲。那套书真漂亮,厚厚的,我总是带着它躺在餐厅壁炉前的地板上,读得最多的是第5卷:《儿童故事》。那都是些童话故事—— 格林的、安徒生的、英国童话、法国童话,“阿里巴巴和四十大盗”; 还有伊索寓言和列那狐的故事;还有神话和传奇故事,如罗宾汉、亚瑟王、圣乔治和龙,甚至还有历史故事圣女贞德;还有一部分《天路历程》,以及一长段《格列佛游记》。每篇故事都有精彩的插图。我早已让自己走进这些故事中去了,一翻就能翻到自己喜爱的故事和插图;《黄肤色小矮人》常常是我的首选,沃尔特?克莱恩绘的彩色插图中黄肤色小矮人看着令人害怕,他左右还有火鸡侍立。如今这册书已经跟父亲那本损坏的《桑福徳与默顿》一样,又破又旧,最后几页掉了,书页散了。有很长一段时间,我一直想自己能不能像母亲为查尔斯?狄更斯做的那样,为《我们的神奇世界》这套书赴汤蹈火,从这一点也可想见我对这套书是多么珍爱;惟一令人安慰的是我相信我可让母亲为我这么做。


我感激父母通过认识字母对我—— 早在我要求之时,而没有让我等待—— 进行文字启蒙,教我阅读和拼写。他们在家里教我,我得以在上学前就开始了阅读。

从最初听故事,到后来自己开始读书,从来没有一行读过的字我不闻其声。当我的目光扫过一个句子时,就会有个声音默念给我听。那不是母亲的声音,也不是我能辨认的某个人的声音,当然也不是我本人的声音。那是人的声音,但是内在的,我倾听的正是内心深处的声音。对我而言,那就是故事本身的声音,就是诗本身的声音。那抑扬顿挫的声音,不论它要你相信的是什么,那印刷文字中蕴含的情感,通过诵读者的声音传递给我:我一直猜想,却始终没能证实,所有的读者都如此—— 边读边听,所有的作者都如此—— 边写边听。那或许是写作欲望的一部分。对我而言,落在纸页上的声音可帮助测试写下来的是否是实事真情。我不知道我相信到这个程度是否对头。如今我也不知道自己能不能做到只读不写,或只写不读。


Unit 2

PartⅡ TextA Let's Go Veggie!






推动人们转向素食的是医学研究提出的关于如何增进健康的建议。一项又一项的研究都揭示了同样的基本事实:果蔬降低患慢性病的危险;肉类食品则增加这种危险。 美国饮食学协会指出,“科学资料表明,素食与降低多种慢性变性疾病的患病危险肯定有关系。”










问题在于,动物在把植物转化为可食用的肉类这方面的效率很低。举例来说,美国政府估测,生产1公斤猪肉需要耗费8.4 公斤的谷物。

我们把这么多资源耗费在动物身上,又得到什么回报呢?粪肥—— 据官方资料,仅加拿大,就以每秒10,000多公斤的速度排出。加拿大环境部称,牛每产1公斤可食牛肉需排出40公斤粪便。安大略省农业部估测,一家大型禽蛋工厂每星期可产出50-100吨禽粪。

这些粪便都到哪儿去了?1992年安大略省地下水调查发现, 43%的被测试水井都受到含有粪便大肠杆菌和硝酸盐等农业生产排出的废物的污染。本月初,阿尔伯达一家大型围栏肥育地经营者被指控将3千万升牛粪排入博河,“沿途生灵悉数被毁”,一则新闻这么报道。












本人还参观过一些典型的加拿大农场。猪崽喷着鼻息、公鸡在粮仓的空场上昂首行走的日子已经一去不复返。而今大多数的现代化农场都有一个个狭长的、没有窗户的牲畜棚,牲畜一生关在棚里,如囚犯一般。我见到过四只鸡挤在一个笼里,喂奶的母猪与猪崽被铁条隔开,肉用小牛关在狭窄得转不过身来的板条箱里。这些牲畜几乎都终年不见阳光,呼吸不到新鲜空气—— 它们天生的欲望大都得不到满足。




Unit 3

PartⅡ TextA The Truth About Lying



我一直想写一个令我深感兴趣的话题:关于说谎的问题。我觉得这个题目很难写。所有我交谈过的人都对什么事情可以说谎—— 什么事情绝对不可以说谎—— 持有强烈的、常常不容别人分说的个人意见。最后我得出结论,我不能下任何定论,因为这样做就会有太多的人立即反对。我想我还是提出若干都与说谎有关的道义上的难题吧。我将向读者阐明我对这些难题的个人看法。你们觉得对吗?





你婉辞邀请时会不会说“那天晚上我们正好没空—— 真对不起,我们不能来,”而实际上你是宁肯呆在家里也不想跟某某夫妇一起进餐?

虽然像我那样,你也想用 “太丰盛了”这种委婉的托辞,而不是盛赞“那汤味道好极了”(其实味同重新热过的咖啡),但如果你必须赞美那汤,你会说它鲜美吗?

我认识一个人,他完全拒绝说这类社交性谎言。“我不会那一套,”他说,“我生来就不会那一套。”讲到对人家说几句好听的话并不失去什么,他的回答是:“不对,当然有损失—— 那会损害你的诚信度。”因此你不问他,他不会对你刚买来的画发表意见,但除非你想听老实话,否则你也不会去问他的真实想法。当我们这些说谎者轻声称赞着“多美啊”的时候,他的沉默往往是极能说明问题的。我的这位朋友从来不讲他所说的“奉承话、虚假的赞美话和动听话”。别人说些无伤大雅的谎言,他则不。他说社交性谎言还是谎言,无关紧要的小小谎言还是谎言。他认为说谎不合道德。你呢?


不少人为了息事宁人而说谎:那种意在避免生气或争吵的谎言,意在使说谎者免受可能的责备或烦恼的谎言;意在(或据认为理应)不伤害他人而又能帮助避免麻烦的谎言。 我有时也说这种谎,不过我总觉得不该说。我知道为什么要说这种谎,但说这种谎终究不对。每当我为了不让别人讨厌自己、看轻自己、或冲着自己嚷嚷而说谎时,我总觉得自己有点像个懦夫,觉得自己是在逃避责任,觉得??愧疚。你呢?








改主意后,她在不知不觉中说谎话求太平了。没错,我也说这种谎。你呢? 保护性谎言

保护性谎言就是因为人们认为事实真相危害性太大而说的谎言,这类谎言通常事关重大。他们说谎,因为他们认为,人的某些价值观念压倒了说谎这一错误行为本身。他们说谎不是为个人私利,而是因为他们相信,那是为他们对之说谎的人好。他们对自己所爱的人撒谎,对最信任自己的人撒谎,就是因为他们认为这样做是有正当理由的。 他们会在金钱或婚姻问题上对子女说谎。








1. (P18-19) (1) allot (2)go through fire and water(3)reside(4)sobbed(5)made no mention of

(6)sacrifice(7)came upon (8)rhythm(9)volume(10)something of a

4. (P20) (1) Ambition, ambition, regardless of (2) discourse, by the way (3)is engraved, inward

Cloze (P24)

(1) go through fire and water (2) salary (3) give… no peace (4) sink into (5)ambition (6) By way of (7) expressive (8)churned (9) engraved (10)not hold a candle to (11)inward

(1) Success (2) literacy (3) significantly (4) promoting (5)appropriate (6) too (7) later

(8)repetition (9) invented (10)less Translation (P25)



Although my grandmother was illiterate, she had a good stock of myths and legends. When I was young I gave her no peace, constantly asking her to tell me stories. After she had finished her housework, she would lift me onto her lap and tell stories, all the while rocking me in rhythm.

Having noticed my interest in stories, my parents lost no time in initiating me into reading. They bought many storybooks with illustrations, and whenever free, they would read these stories to me over and over again. By and by I had a vocabulary large enough to read on my own.



1. (P83) (1)invitation (2)eloquent (3)concede (4)contradictory (5)conceals (6)guilty

(7)generalize (8)get caught in (9)for now (10)as a last resort

4. (P85) (1) In general, that irritates, arrogant (2) adamant, never indulge in, absurd, a romantic

(3) be aware, nonetheless, acceptable to

Cloze (P88)

(1) go along (2) honesty (3) straightforward (4) indulge in (5)What about (6) dodge (7) assert (8)absurd (9) resort (10)juggle (1) asserting (2) go along (3) because (4) part (5)Mistakes (6) exceptions (7) end (8)resort (9) dying (10)freedom

Translation (P25)


The new president of our university disapproves of the idea that we should be allowed to tell lies under certain circumstances. He believes that if people get used to telling any kind of lie, they will indulge themselves and eventually be stuck with the bad habit. To tell or not to tell a lie can sometimes become a very sticky issue, but our president insists on the notion that nobody in the world of education should dodge the responsibility of attaching primary importance to honesty while teaching the young. I agree with him. What about you?



1. (P117) (1)for myself (2)concluded (3)infinite (4)internal (5)misery (6)mode (7)ventured

(8)visible (9)observation (10)commended

4. (P119) (1) an energetic, ardent, The investigation, a wretched, To leave them to their own devices (2) entrusted, explicit, did not commend itself to, look him in the face, turning to

(3) my subsequent, The latter, part with, with reluctance

Cloze (P123-124)

(1) Eolling (2) specimen (3) leave him to his own devices (4)investigation (5)By and by (6) content with (7) entrusted (8)reluctance (9) infectious (10)observation (11)mode (12) grounded in

(1) known (2) only (3) doing (4)assistance (5)assignment (6) simply (7) But (8)turned (9) singled (10)because

Translation (P124) 在注册上数学202这门课时,我就与料到会有困难,因为我在高中读书是数学不好,。这门课是由理查森教授讲授的,他是一位典型的老派的先生,对学生非常热情友好。然而,在学术问题上他一点儿也不马虎。在正式授课之前,他热情洋溢地阐述了他有条不紊的工作、课前做好充分的准备和不满足于所学知识的重要性。他的工作态度具有很强的感染力,渐渐地,我也爱上了数学。

When I eolled in Math 202, I anticipated difficulties because I was not well grounded in mathematics in high school. The course was taught by Professor Richardson, a fine specimen of an old-fashioned gentleman, very cordial to his students. However, when it came to academic matters, he was by no means an easy person. Before he started his lecture, he discoursed enthusiastically on the importance of working in an orderly fashion, of being thoroughly prepared before each class, and of not being content with what you have learned. His attitude towards work was infectious, and by and by I became an ardent math lover, too.



1. (P198) (1)the hard way (2)solemn (3)wrote out (4)champion (5)ownership (6)privilege

(7)To be sure (8)handicap (9)surge (10)cut the ground from under…feet

4. (P200) (1) prospered, the underlying, To begin with, in relation to, of obligation to, enthusiasm for (2) the collision, implicit, personality (3) in common, to combat, own destinies, hung on, the notion

Cloze (P204)

(1) personalities (2) embody (3) underlying (4)collision (5)leadership (6) ownership (7)

ideals (8)champion (9) the hard way (10)prospered

(1) indication (2) sensitive (3) career(4)resign (5)supply (6) disciplined (7) promoted

(8)criticized (9) surrender (10)respected Translation (P205)


Robert Lee’s father’s life had been plagued by poor financial investments. He was jailed twice for unpaid debts and in the end was forced to flee the country. Lee’s mother was the dominant force in shaping Lee’s personality. Against the poignant failure of her husband, she was determined that he tragedy should not be repeated in the life of her children. Self-control, a sense of obligation and an indomitable spirit were the virtues she taught Lee. In 1825, with an aspiration to win back the family honor, Lee began studying at West Point Military Academy. This began a new chapter of his life. Over the four years, he consistently finished near the top of every course.



1. (P264) (1)fragment (2)terrific (3)scratched out (4)strode (5)presumably (6)token (7)tame

(8)engagement (9)cursed (10)see through

4. (P266) (1) prominent, genius for, Whoever (2) had a passion for, at random, no doubt, fill in, make an effort to (3) in particular, are trustworthy, applause, airing their own views

Cloze (P270)

(1) pluck up courage (2) in mourning (3)unexpected (4)distress (5)paradise (6) token (7) intrude (8)no doubt (9)foreseen (10)fell to

(1) behaviors (2)eliminate (3)distance (4)positive (5)participating (6)genuinely (7) keen

(8)concern (9) attentive (10)respect

Translation (P271)


Hey, a frail-looking man of fifty, was older than his robust wife Mary by 20 years. Everyone assumed that she would outlive him. So no one, including Hey himself, had foreseen that Mary would die a sudden, unexpected death. For several weeks, he looked greatly distressed and became a completely changed person. He even speculated whether it would be better for him to

rejoin his wife in paradise. Though each of us expressed our deep sympathy, no one thought it appropriate to intrude upon his family uninvited, in consideration of their need for peace and privacy at such a moment.




1. (P22) (1)sensation (2)per capita (3)fad (4)worship (5)revolutionary (6)flourish (7) haven

(8)productive (9)derive (10)applauds

4. (P24) (1) wound up, worthy to, the recognition (2) played a (cruel) trick on, depressive, scribbling (3) notorious for, on one level, on another level

Cloze (P27-28)

(1) singled out (2) play a trick (3) abyss (4)hospitalized (5)delusions (6) intensified (7) scribbling (8)vacant (9) loyal (10)miraculous (11) awkward (12) die down

(1) widely (2) explain (3) test (4)activities (5)grouped (6) distinct (7) difference

(8)motivated (9) curiosity (10)recognition

Translation (P28)

在得到加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的研究生奖学金后,玛丽对人类行为各个方面的研究的兴趣变得浓厚起来。 她渴望尽早完成计划中的各项实验。当前,她特别想搞清楚优雅的举止在商业谈判中具体有何种举足轻重的分量。她希望她的研究结果能够通过媒体广为流传,以便从事商业谈判的人们能够从她的研究中受益。

Having been granted a fellowship at the University of California at Berkeley, Mary’s interest in research on all dimensions of human behavior has come alive. She is now itching to carry out the various experiments she has planned as soon as possible. At present she is particularly keen on finding out how important a role graceful manner can play in business negotiations. She dreams that her findings will be circulated widely with the help of the media so that people engaged in business negotiations will benefit from them.

Test Yourself I

中国烹饪是中国文化的一个重要的组成部分,就像西方烹饪是西方文化的重要组成部分一样。然而,中国烹饪和西方烹饪又有许多不同,前者主要以植物性食材为主(plant-based),而后者以肉类和奶油为主。中国人将原料(ingredient)切成小块,而后煸炒(stir-fry)或蒸,而西方人则是将原料大块地烹饪,在进餐时用刀叉在盘中切开。中国烹饪中使用的某些原料或调料,如海参(sea cucumber)、酱油等,西方烹饪时很少用。但西方烹饪中却会加进像迷迭香(rosemary)之类的香草(herb)。正常情况下,在中国食物中是见不到这些香草的。中国人添加姜、葱和白胡椒。而你几乎不会在传统的中餐中见到奶酪、黄油、奶油或牛奶的。(245个汉字)

Chinese cuisine is an important component of Chinese culture, as is Western cuisine. Nevertheless, Chinese cuisine and Western cuisine are different in many ways. The former is mainly plant-based whereas the latter is meat and cream-based. Chinese cut the ingredients in small bits and then stir-fry or steam the ingredients while Westerners cook the ingredients in big pieces and cut the food on their plates with knives and forks at table. There are some ingredients or seasonings in Chinese cuisine which are seldom used in Western cuisine, such as sea cucumber, soy sauce, etc. On the other hand, in Western cuisine, herbs like rosemary, etc. are added. You

would normally not find these herbs in Chinese food. Chinese add ginger, Chinese green onion and white pepper. You can hardly find any traditional Chinese food that contains cheese, butter, cream or milk.

Test Yourself II

全球气候变暖造成的重大变化已在中国出现了。例如:2007年中国的平均气温是1951年来最高的。而且是连续第11年中国记录下的异常高温。西藏高原(the Tibetan plateau)的气温过去30年升高了1°C,冰川和雪的覆盖正以较一百年前快10倍的速度缩小着。2003年中国的海平面比1975年至1986年期间全球的海平面高出600毫米。上海、天津以及其它一些城市的海平面正以惊人的速度上升,这还给饮用水的供给造成污染。过量的提取地下水引起地面下沉,使问题更加恶化。(292个汉字)

Significant changes attributed to global warming have already occurred in China. For example, the average temperature in China in 2007 was the highest it had been since 1951. It was also the 11th year at a stretch that China recorded abnormally high temperatures. Temperatures on the Tibetan plateau have risen 1℃ in the past 30 years and glaciers and snow cover there are shrinking 10 times faster than during the previous 100 years. Sea levels in China in 2003 were 600 millimeters above worldwide levels between 1975 and 1986. Sea levels are rising at alarming rates in Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities, contributing to the contamination of drinking water supplies. The problem is aggravated by excessive taking of ground water which is causing ground levels to drop.

test yourself(units1-4):

阅读理解答案:section A36-45:FHGBK MDINO

SectionB:46-55FEABE GHICD

Section C:56-60CBACC61-65DCADA

test yourself(units5-8):

阅读理解答案:section A36-45:LFOKI DCHAN

SectionB:46-55CGBED HGFAG

Section C:56-60CBDAC61-65CAADB


Prison Studies

1 Many who today hear me somewhere in person, or on television, or those who read something I’ve said, will think I went to school far beyond the eighth grade. This impression is due entirely to my prison studies.

狱 中 学 习


2 It had really begun back in the Charlestown Prison, when Bimbi first made me feel envy of his stock of knowledge. Bimbi had always taken charge of any

conversation he was in, and I had tried to emulate him. But every book I picked up had few sentences which didn’t contain anywhere from one to nearly all of the words that might as well have been in Chinese[2 … the words that might as well have been in Chinese: … it would have made no difference if the English words had been in Chinese, because I didn’t have the slightest knowledge of either.]2. When I just skipped those words, of course, I really ended up with little idea of what the book said. So I had come to the Norfolk Prison Colony still going through only

book-reading motions. Pretty soon, I would have quit even these motions, unless I had received the motivation that I did.


3 I saw that the best thing I could do was get hold of a dictionary—to study, to learn some words. I was lucky enough to reason also that I should try to improve my penmanship. It was sad. I couldn’t even write in a straight line. It was both ideas together that moved me to request a dictionary along with some tablets and pencils from the Norfolk Prison Colony school.


4 I spent two days just riffling uncertainly through the dictionary’s pages. I’d never realized so many words existed! I didn’t know which words I needed to learn. Finally, just to start some kind of action, I began copying.


5 In my slow, painstaking, ragged handwriting, I copied into my tablet

everything printed on that first page, down to the punctuation marks.


6 I believe it took me a day. Then, aloud, I read back, to myself, everything I’d written on the tablet. Over and over, aloud, to myself, I read my own handwriting.


7 I woke up the next morning, thinking about those words—immensely proud to realize that not only had I written so much at one time, but I’d written words that I never knew were in the world. Moreover, with a little effort, I also could remember what many of these words meant. I reviewed the words whose meanings I didn’t remember. Funny thing, from the dictionary first page right now, that “aardvark” springs to my mind. The dictionary had a picture of it, a long-tailed, long-eared, burrowing African mammal, which lives off termites caught by sticking out its tongue as an anteater does for ants.

我第二天早上醒来,仍想着那些字—— 想到自己不仅一次写了那么多字,而且还写了以前根本不认识的字,不由得深感自豪。更何况,略加回想,我还能记住其中许多字的意思。没记住的字我都复习了一遍。有趣的是,此时此刻,那本字典第一页上“aardvark”这个字跃入了我的脑海。字典上有一幅画它的插图,那是一种长尾巴长耳朵会掘洞的非洲哺乳动物,像食蚁兽捕食蚂蚁那样伸出舌头捕食白蚁。

8 I was so fascinated that I went on—I copied the dictionary’s next page. And the same experience came when I studied that. With every succeeding page, I also learned of people and places and events from history. Actually the dictionary is like a miniature encyclopedia. Finally the dictionary’s A section had filled a whole tablet—and I went on into the B’s. That was the way I started copying what

eventually became the entire dictionary. It went a lot faster after so much practice helped me to pick up handwriting speed. Between what I wrote in my tablet, and writing letters, during the rest of my time in prison I would guess I wrote a million words.

我完全着迷了,于是继续抄—— 我又抄写了字典的第二页。我学这一页上的字时体验到了同样的感受。每学一页字,我还学到了一点有关人物、地方和历史事件的知识。字典实际上就像是一部小型百科全书。最后,字典上A那部分字的条目抄满了整整一个本子—— 接着我抄写B字部。我就是这样开始抄写的,最后抄完了整本字典。大量的抄写帮助我提高了书写速度,以后抄写起来就快了许多。从在本子上抄写,到后来在那段余下的服刑时间里写信,我估计自己在监狱里写了一百万字。

9 I suppose it was inevitable that as my word-base broadened, I could for the first time pick up a book and read and now begin to understand what the book was saying. Anyone who has read a great deal can imagine the new world that opened. Let me tell you something: from then until I left that prison, in every free moment I had, if I was not reading in the library, I was reading on my bunk. You couldn’t have gotten me out of books with a wedge. Between Mr. Muhammad’s teachings, my correspondence, my visitors—usually Ella and Reginald—and my reading of books, months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I never had been so truly free in my life.

想来也是自然而然的,随着词汇的增加,我第一次能够拿起一本书读下去,开始明白书上说的是什么。任何阅读广泛的人都想象得出在我面前展现的崭新世界。我不妨告诉你:从那时起,直到我离开那座监狱,在任何可以自由支配的时间里,我不是在图书室里,就是在自己的铺位上看书。真的是手不释卷。我的日常活动就是听穆罕默德先生传道,写写信,会会客—— 来探视的一般都是埃拉和雷金纳德—— 加上读书,几个月一晃而过,我甚至没想过自己是在坐牢。事


10 The Norfolk Prison Colony’s library was in the school building. A variety of classes were taught there by instructors who came from such places as Harvard and Boston universities. The weekly debates between inmate teams were also held in the school building. You would be astonished to know how worked up convict

debaters and audiences would get over subjects like “Should Babies Be Fed Milk?” 诺福克拘留所的图书室在教学楼里。来自哈佛大学、波士顿大学等等院校的教员教授不同的课程。每周还在教学楼里举行囚犯间的辩论会。想必你听了会大吃一惊,那些囚犯辩手和听众会对诸如“该不该给婴儿喂牛奶”这类辩题争得面红耳赤。

11 Available on the prison library’s shelves were books on just about every general subject. Much of the big private collection that Parkhurst had willed to the prison[ Much of the big private collection that Parkhurst had willed to the prison: Many of the books that had been bought and kept by Parkhusrt and later given to the prison according to his will] was still in crates and boxes in the

library—thousands of old books. Some of them looked ancient: covers faded, old-time parchment-looking binding. Parkhurst, I’ve mentioned, seemed to have been principally interested in history and religion. He had the money and the special interest to have a lot of books that you wouldn’t have in general circulation. Any college library would have been lucky to get that collection.

拘留所图书室架子上书的种类几乎包罗万象。帕克赫斯特遗赠给拘留所的为数可观的私人藏书中的大多数仍在图书室的板箱及盒子里搁着—— 成千上万本旧书。有些看上去年代久远:封面褪了色,像是用旧式的羊皮纸装订的。我刚才说过,帕克赫斯特的兴趣似乎主要在历史和宗教方面。他有财力,有与众不同的兴趣,得以收藏了许多外面一般见不到的书。任何一家大学图书馆若能得到这批收藏,都不失为一桩幸事。

12 As you can imagine, especially in a prison where there was heavy emphasis on rehabilitation, an inmate was smiled upon if he demonstrated an unusually intense interest in books. There was a sizable number of well-read inmates,

especially the popular debaters. Some were said by many to be practically walking encyclopedias. They were almost celebrities. No university would ask any student to devour literature as I did when this new world opened to me, of being able to read and understand.


13 I read more in my room than in the library itself. An inmate who was known to read a lot could check out more than the permitted maximum number of books. I preferred reading in the total isolation of my own room.


14 When I had progressed to really serious reading, every night at about ten p.m. I would be outraged with the “lights out.” It always seemed to catch me right in the middle of something engrossing.


15 Fortunately, right outside my door was a corridor light that cast a glow into my room. The glow was enough to read by, once my eyes adjusted to it. So when “lights out” came, I would sit on the floor where I could continue reading in that glow.


16 At one-hour intervals the night guards paced past every room. Each time I heard the approaching footsteps, I jumped into bed and feigned sleep. And as soon as the guard passed, I got back out of bed onto the floor area of that light-glow, where I would read for another fifty-eight minutes—until the guard approached again. That went on until three or four every morning. Three or four hours of sleep a night was enough for me. Often in the years in the streets I had slept less than that….


17 I have often reflected upon the new vistas that reading opened to me. I knew right there in prison that reading had changed forever the course of my life. As I see it today, the ability to read awoke inside me some long dormant craving to be mentally alive. I certainly wasn’t seeking any degree, the way a college confers a status symbol upon its students. My homemade education gave me, with every additional book that I read, a little bit more sensitivity to the deafness, dumbness, and blindness that was afflicting the black race in America. Not long ago, an English writer telephoned me from London, asking questions. One was, “What’s your alma mater?” I told him, “Books.” You will never catch me with a free fifteen minutes in which I’m not studying something I feel might be able to help the black man. 我常常思忆阅读为我打开的新天地。还在狱中时,我就认识到阅读已经不可逆转地改变了自己的人生历程。今天想来,阅读唤醒了自己内心蛰伏已久的对精神生活的渴望。当然我不是想追求什么学位,像大学授予学生学位那样。我的自学经历使我每读一本书,就加深一点对美国黑人深受其苦的那种聋、哑、盲的认识。不久前,一位英国作家从伦敦打来电话问了一些问题。其中一个是:“你曾在哪所学校就读?”我回答说,“书本。”你不会看到我有一刻钟空闲着,而不去用来学习我觉得对黑人或许有所帮助的知识。

18 Every time I catch a plane, I have with me a book that I want to read—and that’s a lot of books these days. If I weren’t out here every day battling the white man, I could spend the rest of my life reading, just satisfying my curiosity—because you can hardly mention anything I’m not curious about. I don’t think anybody ever got more out of going to prison than I did. In fact, prison enabled me to study far more intensively than I would have if my life had gone differently and I had attended some college. I imagine that one of the biggest troubles with colleges is there are too many distractions, too much panty-raiding, fraternities, and boola-boola and all

of that. Where else but in prison could I have attacked my ignorance by being able to study intensely sometimes as much as fifteen hours a day?

每次坐飞机,我都随身携带一本要读的书—— 到今天已读了不少书。要不是我每天都出来跟白人做斗争,我会在余生把时间都花在读书上,仅仅是为了满足自己的好奇心—— 因为你几乎说不出有什么东西是我不感到好奇的。我想没有人像我那样在狱中获得如此多的裨益。事实上,监禁使我得以一心读书,如果我有着不同的人生历程,如果我上过大学,我未必能如此专心致志。我想,大学生活最大的弊端之一在于分心的事太多,“抢短衬裤”闹个没完,联谊会活动太频繁,种种胡闹,不一而足。除了监狱,还有什么地方我能有时一天专心攻读15小时之多,借以攻克


Let's Go Veggie


1 If there was a single act that would improve your health, cut your risk of food-borne illnesses, and help preserve the environment and the welfare of millions of animals, would you do it?



2 The act I'm referring to is the choice you make every time you sit down to a meal.


3 More than a million Canadians have already acted: They have chosen to not eat meat. And the pace of change has been dramatic.


4 Vegetarian food sales are showing unparalleled growth. Especially popular are meat-free burgers and hot dogs, and the plant-based cuisines of India, China, Mexico, Italy and Japan.


5 Fuelling the shift toward vegetarianism have been the health

recommendations of medical research. Study after study has uncovered the same basic truth: Plant foods lower your risk of chronic disease; animal foods increase it. 推动人们转向素食的是医学研究提出的关于如何增进健康的建议。一项又一项的研究都揭示了同样的基本事实:果蔬降低患慢性病的危险;肉类食品则增加这种危险。

6 The American Dietetic Association says: "Scientific data suggest positive relationships between a vegetarian diet and reduced risk for several chronic degenerative diseases."


7 This past fall, after reviewing 4,500 studies on diet and cancer, the World Cancer Research Fund flatly stated: "We've been running the human biological engine on the wrong fuel."




我父母发现了我对故事的浓厚兴趣,不失时机地引导我进行阅读。他们给我买了许多带插图的故事书,有空的时候就一遍遍地读给我听。慢慢地我认识了很多字,能自行阅读了。 直到今天,我还要感谢祖母和双亲。没有他们,我今天不可能成为一名作家。

Although my grandmother was illiterate, she had a good stack of myths and legends. When I was young I gave her no peace, constantly asking her to tell me stories. After she had finished her housework, she would lift me onto her lap and tell stories, all the while rocking me in rhythm. These stories and her expressive face appealed profoundly to me.

Having noticed my interest in stories, my parents lost no time in initiating me into reading. They bought many storybooks with illustations, and whenever free, they would read these stories to me over and over again. By and by I had a vocabulary large to read on my own .

Today, I still live in gratitude to my grandmother and my parents. Without them, I could never have become a writer.

Unit 2 Diet


Study after study has uncovered the fact that there is a close correlation between food and a number of chronic diseases. For example, a decreased risk of certain chronic diseases is associated with an increased consumption of plant-based foods. Therefore, in the past, the American Dietetic Association has urged Americans to reduce their intake of animal fats, and to boost consumption of fruits, vegetable, and grains. Meanwhile, the United States Department of Agriculture has released a document containing the food guide pyramid which encourages a minimun of 3 vegetables and 2 fruit servings per day. However, many Americans still don’t meet/listen to these recommendations. A good case in point is Peter. He developed a cardiovascular disease due to an excessive intake of animal fats. Athough his doctor suggested he should adopt a healthy diet, such as eating plant-based foods, he was too stubborn to listen. He said he couldn’t resist the temptation of dishes with meat and that meat would always feature prominently in his ideal diet. People’s lack of awareness of the need to eat more plant-based foods has heightened the government’s concern and it is launching a new campaign to increase pulic awareness in this area. Well, how much fruit and vegetable have you eaten today?


The new president of our university disapproves of the idea that we should be allowed to tell lies under certain circumstances. He calls on all the teachers and students of the university to conduct themselves with honesty and never tell lies. He believes that if people get used to telling any kind of lie, they will indulge themselves and eventually be stuck with the bad habit. To tell or not to tell a lie can sometimes become a very sticky issue, but our president is adamant that nobody in the world of education should dodge the responsibility of attaching primary importance to honesty while teaching the young. I gree with him, What about you ?

Unit 4 Take This Fish and Look At It


When I eolled in Math 202, I anticipated difficulties because I was not well grounded in mathematics in high school. The course was taught by Professor Richardson, a fine specimen of an old-fashioned gentleman, formally dressed, soft spoken, and cordial to his students. However, when it came to academic matters, he was by no means an easy person. Before he started his lecture, he discoursed enthusiastically on the importance of working in an orderly fashion, of being thoroughly prepared before each class, of being steadfast in one’s efforts, and of not being content with what you have learned. There was no doubt that teaching math was something sacred to him. His attitude towards work was infectious, and by and by I became an ardent math lover, too.

Unit 5 Globel warming


Most scientists no longer doubt that the world is warming up and that humanity has altered climate. They agree that the long-term effects of global warming will be disastrous for the planet and its inhabitants. What is more, climate change won't be a smooth transition to a warmer world. Some regions will be greatly affected by abrupt climate changes. Enormous areas of densely populated land like coastal Florida would become uninhabitable. Hundreds of millions of residents would have to migrate to safer regions. Therefore, it is no surprise that global warming has made its way onto the agenda of world leaders.