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高中英语虚拟语气讲解

时间:2016-04-16 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:高中英语语法之虚拟语气讲解

【The Subjunctive Mood】

语气 (mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话者的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。

直陈语气(indicative mood),表示所说的话是事实。

祈使语气 (imperative mood),表示所说的话是请求或命令。

虚拟语气(subjunctive mood),表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议或与事实相反的假设等。

一. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用

学习虚拟语气在条件句中的用法之前我们必须清楚条件句的种类:条件句有真实条件句与非真实条件句(或称虚拟条件句)两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句都用陈述语气。

如:

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic. 假若明天不下雨,我就去野餐。

Oil floats if you pour it on water. 你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。

虚拟条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆须用虚拟

1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be的过去式用were), 主句的谓语用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如:

If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic.如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。

(事实是:天在下雨,我们不能出去野餐。表示愿望。)

If he came here, he might be able to help you. 如果他来这,他就能够帮助你了。

(事实是:他没来这,他不可能帮助你。表示对他的良好印象。)

2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用had+过去分词,主句的谓语用should ( would, might, could)+ have +过去分词。

如: She would have gone to the party if she had been invited.

要是当初她被邀请的话,她就会去参加这次聚会了。

(事实是:当时没有人邀请她,因此,她没有来参加聚会。表示后悔。)

If she hadn't called me, I would have overslept this morning.

今天早上,她要是不叫我的话,我就会睡过头了。

(事实是:她今天早上叫我了,我没有睡过头。表示感激。)

3. 与将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were); should+动词原形;were to+动词原形,主句用should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

如: If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of French.

明年我要是二十岁,我就会学法语。

(事实是:我现在已经老了,明年我学不了法语了。)

If it should fail, I would try again.要是失败了,我会再试一次。

(事实是:有可能失败,可我会再试。表示未知。)

虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。

如: If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time.

假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望)

If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station.

假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望)

4. 混合型的条件句

当条件从句与主句所表的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。主句和从句的谓语动词并不相互呼应,这种条件句叫混合条件句。较多见的混合型条件句是从句用过去完成时(指过去行为),而主句用一般时(指目前状态)。

He would pass the test if he had taken my advice.如果他听了我的劝告,他现在会通过考试。

If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now.

假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice.

假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

如条件从句用if I were...,主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。

如: If I were not busy, I would have come.

假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were表过去)

If I were you, I would go.

假如我是你,我会去的。(were表现在)

二. 连词if的省略

如果虚拟条件句的谓语部分有were,had和should时,可省略if,把were,had和should放到从句主语前面去,多见于书面语。

Had you not helped me, I should have failed.要是没有你的帮助,我就失败了。

Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的地位,你也会这样干的。

Should they attack us, we’ll wipe them out completely.

假如他们进攻我们,我们就把他们彻底消灭干净。

三. 含蓄条件句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况。

1) 条件暗含在短语中。

如: But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment.

如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功的。(暗含在分词短词but for your help)

What would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在介词短语without you 中)It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。

(条件暗含在不定式短语 to do it this way中)

This same thing, happening in wartime, amount to disaster.

同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime 中)

He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

Alone, he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

2) 条件暗含在上下文中。

如: You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含 if you should accept it)

3) 在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。

如: You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。

I would like to come. 我愿意来。

四. 不用if引导的条件从句

虚拟条件句中的条件从句除用if引外,还可用when, unless, lest, suppose, as if, for fear, in case, on condition 等词语来引导。

如: The peasants prepared to feed the city when it should be freed.

农民已准备在这座城市解放后供给粮食。

Lest you should not have heard all, I shall begin at the beginning.

我怕你没有听全,所以我再从头开始讲一遍。

Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at school. 除非我好了,否则我不会上学。

Suppose you were given a chance to study in America , would you accept?

假如给你一个到美国学习的机会,你会接受吗?(suppose 或 supposing =what if)

Supposing it were so?(=Supposing it were so,what would happen?)

要是这样的话,会怎么样呢?

He can use the bicycle on condition that he should return it tomorrow.

如果明天能还回来,他就可以借用这辆自行车。

In case I forget , please remind me of my promise 如果我忘了,请提醒我的诺言。

Susan is walking slowly ,as if she were tired. 苏珊走得很慢,就像是累了似的。

与if一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句亦可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

虚拟语气补充讲解(第二课时)

虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。

1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用

“常用在It is (was)+形容词 / 过去分词+that引导的主语从句”的句型中的主语从句要用虚拟语气。主语从句的谓语用should+动词原形(或should+have+过去分词)或只用动词原形(尤其是美国英语)。should在此是助动词,本身并无实义,这种主语从句中的should有时有感情色彩。

It's important that we(should)work out a plan. (带有“要求”的含义)

It's better that he go at once. (带有“建议”的意思)

☆ 用于本句型的形容词并不多,常见形容词有:necessary,important,best, right, impossible,preferable,desirable, imperative, advisable,essential,reserved,urgent, 等。

It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once.

It's strange that he should say so.

I was glad that he should go.

It is important that we should speak politely.

It is a pity that she should fare so badly.

It's right that you should think that way.

☆用于本句型中的过去分词就是表示提议要求、命令等动词的过去分词,如suggested,settled, required,requested,demanded,urged,decided, proposed,ordered,desired,advised等。

It is requested that Professor Liu(should)give us a lecture.

It is desired that we(should)get everything ready by tonight.

I’m ashamed you should have done such a thing.

It has been suggested that the meeting(should)be put off.有人建议推迟会议。

It is settled that you leave us, then?

注意:这种句型中的主语从句也可用陈述语气,如:It was important that he made an explicit statement on this score last week. 他上个星期对于这一方面做了明确的说明,这是很重要的。

2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用

1). 宾语从句在表示提议、要求、命令、意志等动词后,其谓语用should+动词原形或只用动词原形的虚拟语气,作为suggest,request,demand,urge,propose,prefer,advise,insist,require,order,command,maintain,ask,object, arrange, desire等动词的宾语。

如:

The doctor suggested that he not go there.医生建议他不要去那里。

He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

2). wish的宾语的从句,表示愿望,常省去连词that。

☆ 从句的谓语动词可用过去式,表示现在的愿望(与现在事实相反),虽实现的可能性不大,但仍有实现的可能。

I wish it were true.我但愿这是真的。

☆ 从句的谓语动词还可用“could(would,might)+动词原形”用来表示将来的愿望

I wish you would stay a little longer.我希望你再待一会儿。

☆ 表示无能为力的过去愿望(与过去事实相反),可用“had +过去分词”或“could(would,might)+have+过去分词”

I wish you had called yesterday.我希望你昨天来过电话。

We wish you had come to our New Year’s party.我们真希望你来参加了我们的新年联欢会。

3). would rather, would sooner等表示愿望,其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。

☆ 表示与现在和将来含义事实相反的虚拟语气要用动词的过去式

☆ 用过去完成式(had + 过去分词)表示过去事实相反的含义

I would rather you came tomorrow.我宁愿你明天来。

I’d sooner she left the heavy end of the work to some one else.我宁愿她把重活留给别人。

4). 有些动词,如think, expect, believe,其否定式的宾语从句亦可用should+动词原形。如:

I never thought he should refuse.我万没有想到他会拒绝。

She did not expect that you should come.她没有预料你会来。

3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的应用

名词suggestion,proposal,order,advice,demand等作主语,其后的表语从句中的谓语动词一般使用虚拟语气,用should +动词原形或省略should。

My suggestion is that we (should) send a few soldiers to help them.

我的建议是我们应派几个战士去增援他们。

My advice is that you (should) treat her well.我的忠告是你应该善待她。

He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once.

他提出一个要求,要求她立刻离开这个地方。

My suggestion is that we should tell him.我的建议是我们应该告诉他。

Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible.

我们唯一的请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

注意:虚拟语气也可以用于同位语从句。

如:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的应用

常用在It is time (that)…句型中,定语从句常用虚拟过去式

It is time the children went to bed.孩子们早该上床睡觉了。(表示催促)

It's high time that he began to think how to deal with money.

他早该开始考虑如何与钱打交道。

It is time we left.我们该走了。

It is time we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。

5. 虚拟式动词原形亦常用在独立句中,表愿望

Long live the Communist Party of China!中国共产党万岁!

God bless you! 上帝保佑你。

God damn it! 该死的!

The devil take you! 见鬼去吧!

So be it then. 就那样吧。

6. 虚拟时态与谓语动词时态的关系:从句中的虚拟时态往往不受全句谓语时态的影响。

1) 用于主语从句。试比较:

It is important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

It was important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

2) 用于宾语从句。试比较:

I suggest that we should go tomorrow.我建议我们明天走。

I suggested that we should go the next day.我建议我们第二天走。

She said, “If I were a boy I would join the army.”她说,“我如是男孩,就参军。”

She said that if she were a boy, she would join the army.她说她如是男孩就参军。

但强调现在时刻的虚拟式在间接引语中需要遵守时态一致的原则。试比较:

“If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do,” he said.

“假如我知道它是如何运行的话,我就会告诉你该怎么办,”他说道。

He said that if he had known how it worked he could have told me what to do.

他说假如他知道它是如何运行的话,他就会告诉我该怎么办。

“If I knew the answer to all your questions I'd be a genius,” he said.

“我如知道你所有问题的答案,我就是天才了。”他说道。

He said that if he knew the answer to all my questions, he’d be a genius.

他说他如知道我所有问题的答案,他就是天才了。

但如果全句谓语是虚拟语气,其后从句的时态则多受其影响,现在时态应随之而变为过去时态。 如:I would think he was wrong.我看他是错了。(须用was,试比较:I think he is wrong)

It would seem that she was right. 她似乎是对的。(须用was,试比较:It seems that she is right)

篇二:高中英语虚拟语气详解及练习(含答案)

虚 拟 语 气

第一节 语气

英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气:陈述语气(Indicative Mood),祈使语气(Imperative Mood)和虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)。不同的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助句法形式)来表示。

第二节 虚拟语气的概念

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。

第三节 虚拟语气在条件句中

1. 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为:错综时间条件句“,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整.

If you had followed my advice , you would be better now.

如果你听我的建议,你现在就会痊愈了.

2.在条件句中,可省略 if,把were ,had, should 提到句首,变为倒装句式.

If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

Had you come earlier, you would have met him.

第四节 虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用

一、虚拟语气在主语从句中

A.在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,表示某事重要、奇怪、自然、必要等;that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形 (should可以省略)例如: It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

这类的形容词还有advisable(可取的),appropriate(适当的),compulsary(必须的),crucial(关键的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),important(重要的),possible(可能的),preferable(更好的),probable(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(急迫的),vital(极为重要的)等。

B. 在It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required/recommended/requested/required/.

that-clause句型中从句用(should )+动词原型,表示愿望,建议,请求等主观意愿等。

It is demanded that we should work out a plan.

C. 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonderproposal/recommendation/suggestion/surprise/advice that…..句型中从句也常用(should )+动词原型,表示建议,命令,请求,道歉,怀疑,惊奇等。

It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance.

二、用于宾语从句

用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句。 , , order, command, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire etc.

注意:suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲时,insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时,应用陈述语气。 The teacher suggested that we should clean the blackboard after class.

老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.

他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意.

He insisted that all of us be there on time by any means.

他坚持要求我们大家想尽办法按时去那里。

The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.

那个人坚持说他没有偷钱.

三、用于表语从句和同位语从句

在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request /desire/ recommendation/resolution 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用“should+动词原形” should可以省略.

My advice is that you should practice speaking English as often as possible.

我的建议是你要尽可能经常地练习说英语。

The suggestion that the mayor should present the prizes was accepted by everyone.

每个人都接受由市长颁发奖金这一建议。

第五节 虚拟语气在其他从句中

1. It is (high / about ) time that…从句中的谓语动词用过去式或should+动词原形,should不能省略.

It’s high time we went to the laboratory. 该是我们去实验室的时候了。

2. If only 引导的感叹句(要是...该有多好啊;但愿);

2.1 表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望。用过去时或would/could+动词原形表示;

If only you listened to us!要是你听我们的话该多好啊!

2.2 与过去事实相反的愿望,用过去完成时。例如:

If only I had listened to the doctor’s advice! 我要是听了医生的话就好了。

3. would rather,would sooner, would as soon,would prefer + 从句 也常用虚拟语气,表示宁愿、但愿之意。这种虚拟语气表示的不是与事实相反的假设,而是一种尚未实现的愿望

3.1 表示现在或将来的情况:在上述词后+主语+

I would rather you left today.我宁愿你今天走。

I would sooner my daughter attended a public school. 但愿我的女儿能上公立学校。

I would prefer he didn’t stay here too long.

我倒希望他不要在这儿待得太久。

3.2 表示过去的情况,在上述词后+主语+动词过去完成时。例如:

I would rather I hadn’t seen that film yesterday.

我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。

4. as if ( as though) 看起来 even if ( even though)即使 常用虚拟形式,其构成形式与wish后宾语从句里的虚拟语气的构成形式相同,表示与现在事实相反(从句意上判断),用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done),would/could +动词原形。例如:

The football fans of act as if they were crazy. 那些足球迷们经常就像疯了似的。(act与were发生在同一时间平面上)

He often talks about London as though he had been there. (had been there发生在talkes之前) 他常常谈起伦敦,就好像他去过那里似的。

She often talks and talks as if she would never stop. (would never stop后于talks and talks 发生) 她常常讲起来没完没了。

5. 虚拟语气在in order that,so that,in case,lest,for fear that引导的目的状语从句中的应用,从句中的谓语动词用"may(might)+动词原形"或"should+动词原形"。在以lest引导的从句中,谓语动词用"should+动词原形"。例如:

He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.他拿上了雨衣以防下雨。

He was punished lest he should make the same mistake again. 他被处以惩罚以免他再犯。

He put his coat over the child for fear that he (should) catch cold.他把外套给孩子穿上以防孩子感冒。

6.wish 后面的宾语从句中, 一般用虚拟语气,表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓语动词形式为: 表现在 过去时 (表示与主句的谓语动词同时存在或先于主句谓语动词存在的与事实相反的愿望)

I wish I were a bird. (were 与wish 发生在同一时间平面上)

表过去 过去完成时 (从句的谓语动词先于主句的谓语动词发生或存在,(that)+主语+had+动词的过去分词)

I wish you had come to our Christmas party.

表将来 would, might, could+动词原形 (从句的谓语动词后于主句的谓语动词发生或存在) I wish that the rain could stop soon.

虚拟语气专项练习

1. Jack wishes that he _____ business instead of history when he was in university.

A. studied B. had been studying

C. study D. had studied

2. The millions of calculation involved, had they been done by hand, _____ all practical value by the time they were finished.

A. had lost B. would lose

C. would have lostD. should have lost

3. It is essential that these application forms _____ back as early as possible.

A. must be sentB. are sen

C. will be sent D. be sent

4. It is important that the hotel receptionist _____ that guests are registered correctly.

A. has made sureB. must make sure

C. made sure D. make sure

5. It was essential that the application forms _____ back before the deadline.

A. must be sentB. be sent

C. would be sentD. were sent

6. It's necessary _____ the dictionary immediately.

A. that he will return B. that he return

C. that he returnedD. that he has to return

7. It is important that enough money _____ to fund the project.

A. be collectedB. was collected

C. must be collected D. can be collected

8. I don't think it advisable that Tom _____ to the job since he has no experience.

A. is assigned B. be assigned

C. will be assigned D. has been assigned

9. The suggestion that the mayor _____ the prizes was accepted by everyone.

A. would presentB. present

C. ought to presentD. presents

10. We are all for your proposal that the discussion _____.

A. be put off B. should put off

C. was put off D. is to put off

11. You _____ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.

A. shouldn't have been followingB. mustn't follow

C. couldn't have been followingD. shouldn't follow

12. The manager would rather his daughter _____ in the same office.

A. does not workB. had not worked

C. not to work D. did not work

13. Wouldn't you rather your child _____ to bed early?

A. goB. would go

C. wentD. goes

14. I'd rather you _____ make any comment on the issue for the time being.

A. don't B. didn't

C. wouldn't D. shouldn't

15. Mike's uncle insists _____ in this hotel.

A. staying not B. that he would not stay

C. not to stay D. that he not stay

16. As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, I have directed that all measures ____ for our defense.

A. had been takenB. be taken

C. would be takenD. to be taken

17. The manager of the hotel requests that their guests _____ after 11:00 p.m.

A. not to play loud music B. don't play loud music

C. shouldn't play loud musicD. couldn't paly load music

18. We desire that the tour leader ____ us immediately of any change in plans.

A. inform B. informs

C. informed D. has informed

19. He suggested _____ to tomorrow's exhibition together.

A. us to go B. we shall go

C. we went D. we go

20. Sometimes I wish I _____ in a different time and a different place.

A. be living B. would live

C. were living D. would have lived

21. I wish I _____ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

A. could have sleptB. might have slept

C. slept D. have slept

22. Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she _____ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.

A. has to get B. had got

C. were to get D. could have got

23. If the whole operation ____ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.

A. was not planned B. had not been planned

C. has not been planned D. were not planned

24. Had he worked harder, he _____ the exams.

A. must have got through B. would get through

C. would have got through D. could get through

25. _____ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party.

A. Had they arrived B. Were they arriving

C. Would they arrive D. Were they to arrive

26. _____ right now, she would get there on Sunday.

A. Would she leave B. Were she to leave C. If she leaves D. If she had left

27. _____ for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand.

A. Not being B. Without being C. Had it not been D. Not having been

28. _____ for your laziness, you could have finished the assignment by now.

A. Had it not been B. Weren't it C. It were notD. Had not it been

29. If it _____ too much trouble, I'd love a cup of tea.

A. isn't B. weren'tC. wasn't D. hadn't been

30. If I hadn't stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you _____ now.

A. wouldn't be smiling B. won't smile C. couldn't have smiled D. didn't smile

31. We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we _____ him.

A. would have telephonedB. would telephone

C. must have telephoned D. had telephoned

32. He must have had an accident, or he _____ then.

A. would have been here B. should be here

C. had to be here D. would be here

33. Some women ____ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family.

A. must make B. should have made

C. would make D. could have made

34. We _____ to start our own business, but we never had enough money.

A. have hoped B. had hoped

C. would hope D. should hope

35. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he _____ himself.

A. injure B. injured

C. had injured D. would injure

36. "You are very selfish. It's high time you _______ that you are not the most important person in the world", Edgar said to his boss angrily.

A. realized B. realize

C. have realizedD. should realize

37. It's already 5 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time _____ ?

A. we are going home B. we went home

C. we go homeD. we can go home

38. If only the committee _____ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

A. approve B. can approve

C. will approve D. would appro(来自:WwW.hn1C.Com 唯 才 教育 网:高中英语虚拟语气讲解)ve

篇三:高中英语虚拟语气讲解与练习

虚拟语气

英语有两种语气——陈述语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气表示事实上发生的事情或客观存在的情

况。虚拟语气表示假定、想象、愿望等非事实观念。

Ⅰ.虚拟语气在条件句中主要有以下几种情况。

(1).表达与现在的事实相反的假设或想象:

条件从句主句

If + 主语 + 过去式, 主语 + should/would + 动词原形

If + 主语 + were,主语 + would/should + 动词原形

(其中,should用于第一人称,would可用于各个人称。)

If I had enough money, I should/would buy a camera.

If I were rich, I would help the poor.

(2).表达与过去事实相反的假设或想象:

条件从句 主句

If + 主语 + had + 过去分词, 主语 + should/would have + 过去分词

If I had had enough money, I would have bought a car.

(= I didn’t have enough money, so I didn’t buy it.)

If it had not rained yesterday, we should have gone fishing.

(3)表达与将来事实相反的假设或想象,有三种形式:

①条件从句主句

If +主语+ should + 动词原形,主语 + should/would + 动词原形

(表示可能性极小 “万一”)

If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go.

注意:if从句的动词形式不分人称与数,一律用“should+动词原形”

②条件从句主句

If +主语 + were to + 动词原形, 主语 + should/would +动词原形

If I were to go abroad, I would go to America. 倘若我要出国,我就到美国。

③条件从句主句

If +主语 +动词过去式, 主语 + should/would +动词原形

If he went to the party, he would be disappointed.

(4) 在条件状语从句中,常会出现主句所表示的行为所发生的时间与从句表示的行为的时

间不一致,叫做错综时间虚拟条件句,即条件从句与主句所指时间不一致。如从句指过去,

而主句却指现在或将来,此时应根据具体的语境,结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作出

相应的调整。

If you had gone to bed early last night, you would not be so sleepy now.

If I were you, I wouldn’t have gone to the party last night.

(5) 假设情况不用if从句来表示,而是用without, but for, otherwise, or, but等表示一种含蓄条

件。

表示与现在或将来相反,用“would (should, could, might)+动词原形”;表示与过去相反用

“would (should, could, might)+have+过去分词”

I knew my uncle did have no time. Otherwise he would have kept me company to go hiking.

例1:We ______ John's name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury. (2011·江西卷28)

A. will putB. will have put C. would putD. would have put

例2: I ______ through that bitter period without your generous help. (2011·陕西卷22)

A. couldn't have goneB. didn't go

C. wouldn't go D. hadn't gone

(5)条件从句if的省略:

当从句中有were,过去分词had, 或should时,if经常省略。此时,主语后面的主动词(were,

had,should等)被移至句首。

Were I a bird, I would fly to you.

= If I were a bird, I would fly to you,

Should it rain tomorrow, I would not go there.

= If it should rain tomorrow, I would not go there.

例:______ in your position, I would go.

A. If IB. Were IC. If was ID. If I am Ⅱ用在从句中的虚拟语气

⒈宾语从句中的应用

(1) wish后的宾语从句:

表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时;

表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用过去完成时;

表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的主观愿望,常用“would (could)+动词原形”。

I wish I knew the answer to the question..

I wished I hadn’t spent so much money.

I wish it would stop raining.

I wish you would come soon.

例:— Where are the children?

— I wish they ______ always late. (2011·北京卷28)

A. weren't B. hadn't been

C. wouldn't beD. wouldn't have been

(2) 在具有愿望、请求、建议、命令等主观意愿的动词(desire, demand, advice, insist, require,

suggest, propose, order, recommend, decide …) 后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用

(should) +动词原形。值得注意的是,如果宾语从句的动词是否定的,否定词not的位置应在

动词之前,而不是动词之后。

I demand that he (should) answer me immediately.

The head nurse insisted that the patient not be move.

【注意】

(1)suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气.

His pale face suggested that he was in poor health.

(2)insist 意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。

He insisted that he did not kill the boy.

2. 主语从句中的应用

It is+形容词/ 名词/ 过去分词+ that引导的主语从句,主语从句中谓语动词常用 “should + 动

词原形”。

常用形容词有:necessary, important, essential, imperative, urgent, preferable, vital, advisable等

常用名词有:duty, pity, regret, no wonder, shame等。

常用过去分词有:demanded, suggested, required, requested, ordered, decided等

It is suggested that pupils (should) wear school uniforms.

It is important that everyone (should) inform themselves of these rules.

It is a pity that he (should) refuse to accept the offer

3.表语从句中的应用

上述动词相应的名词形式作主语+连系动词构成表语从句,要用虚拟语气,即“should + 动词

原形”.常用名词形式有:advice, decision, demand, proposal, request, order, suggestion等。

His suggestion was that the meeting (should) be put off.

Ⅲ其他形式的虚拟语气

1. 在It's (high/about) time “该干某事了” 之后的定语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去

式.

It is high time that you went to school.

2. 虚拟语气在as if / as though 引导的方式状语从句中的应用(谓语动词形式与wish后的宾

语从句基本相同)

表示与现在事实相反,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时;

表示与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;

表示将来的可能性不大,用“would (could)+动词原形”

He felt as if he were responsible for what had happened.

He treats me as if I were a stranger.

Even if she had been ill, she would have gone to her office.

3.if only 引起的感叹句中需用虚拟语气

表示与现在或未来事情相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去式 或 would/should+动词原形

表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去完成式。

Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I had followed your advice.

If only I had not been busy last week.

4. would (had)rather , would sooner也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚

拟语气。

表示与现在或未来事情相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去式.

表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去完成式.

I would rather he went right now.

补充:“情态动词+have done”的用法

must have done表示对过去事情的肯定推测。

can't / couldn't have done表示对过去所发生的事情所做的否定推测。

may have done表示过去所发生的事情作可能性推测。

might / could have done表示对过去所发生的事情作可能性推测,或者表示本来可以做而事实上未做的事情。

should / ought to have done表示本应该做的事情而事实上未做,含有对对方的责备。

needn't have done表示做了本不应该做的事情。

例1:They ______ have arrived at lunchtime but their flight was delayed. (2011·新课标卷32)

A. will B. can

C. must D. should

例2:— I left my handbag on the train, but luckily someone gave it to a railway official.

— How unbelievable to get it back! I mean, someone ______ it. (2011·江苏卷34)

A. will have stolenB. might have stolen

C. should have stolen D. must have stolen

语法专项练习:

1. But for the help of John, he _____ last night.

A. should have drownedB. would have drowned

C. was drowned D. may have drowned

2. If it _____ fine tomorrow, we would go for a swim in the sea.

A. would beB. should beC. isD. was to

3. He suffered a sudden heart attack and her wife found him dead when she got home from work. But