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牛津高中英语课文朗读

时间:2016-06-05 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:牛津高中英语课文翻译模块三

Appendix I: Translation

Unit 1

Reading

比尔·洛

浓雾警报

那天早晨波莉离家时,整个城市已笼罩在灰色的薄雾中。午餐时分,收音机预报说,薄雾将会在下午变成浓雾。下午四点,波莉下了班,步入了浓雾中。她不知道公交车是否还会照常运行。

没有到国王大街的巴士

一走到街上,她就快步向平常乘车的公交车站走去。

“您要坐多远?”巴士售票员收下她的车费前问道。

“国王大街。”波莉答道。

“对不起,小姐,”售票员回答说,“现实情况是雾太浓了,公交车跑不了那么远。乘地铁到格林公园吧。那里的天气可能好一点,您也许能叫到一辆出租车。”

高个子男人

当波莉打量地铁车厢里的乘客时,她感到她正被一个穿着黑色大衣的高个子男人注视着。地铁终于到达了格林公园站。当其他乘客走出车厢时,她扫视了一下她周围的一张张面孔。那个高个子男人不见了。 脚步声

当波莉到达车站入口处时,那里空无一人。外面,她目光所及之处,雾像浓密的灰云一样聚积着。什么人也看不见。波莉朝着公园大街走去。当她沿着狭窄的街道行走时,她听到了由远及近的脚步声,但当她走到街道拐角处时,脚步声却消失了,突然,波莉感到有一只粗糙的手拂过她的脸颊'并且她还听到了一个男人在她耳边说“对不起”的声音。那个男人走开了。她能感到她的心脏因害怕而怦怦地直跳。 热心的陌生人

然后,她又听到了那种声音——在她身后响起的轻柔的脚步声。一分钟前,她曾希望有人跟着来。现在她则想跑开,可恐惧让她挪不动脚步。脚步声这会儿似乎很近了。接着,一个男人的声音从黑暗中传来:“有人吗?”

波莉犹豫了。最终她还是回答道:“你好,我想我是迷路了。”

几秒钟后,一只手伸过来抓住了她的胳膊。波莉抬头看去,发现是一位长着络腮胡子的老人。 “也许我能帮你。你想去哪条路?”他问道。

“我住在国王大街86号,”波莉答道。

“只要拉着我的手就成,”老人说,“跟着我走,不会有事的。”他拉住波莉的手。“小心这里的台阶。” 老人的另一只手里攥着一根手杖。波莉能听见它敲击台阶的声音。“我还记得几次糟糕的大雾,不过那可能都是在你出生之前的事了。我看不见你的脸,但你听起来挺年轻。你多大了?”

“刚20岁,”波莉答道。

“啊,20岁,多好的年纪啊。我也年轻过。现在我们到了十字路口了。这里向左转。”

“我是彻底迷路了。您肯定你认识路吗?”波莉又开始感到害怕了。

“当然肯定,你真的不用担心。”老人将她的手握得更紧了。

感恩的帮助者

“我们到了。国王大街。”老人停住了脚步。

“非常感谢您帮忙,”波莉如释重负地说道,“您愿意进屋休息会儿么?”

“你真客气,”老人说道,“不过我还是得走了,可能今天还会有更多人迷路,我想帮帮他们。你瞧,像今天这么大的雾是很少见的。这给了我一个机会,来回报晴天时人们给我的帮助。像我这样的盲人没人

帮助是根本过不了马路的,除非是在这样的浓雾里。”

Project

鲨鱼攻击

有将近400种不同种类的鲨鱼,但我们知道只有约30种鲨鱼攻击过人类。许多人知道最危险的鲨鱼是大白鲨,也许是因为他们看过电影《大白鲨》吧。然而,另外两种鲨鱼也相当危险:

虎鲨和牛鲨。和许多人可能会认为的正好相反,证据显示鲨鱼极少攻击人类。

鲨鱼攻击人类的情形有三种。在主要的情形中,鲨鱼攻击你是因为它把你错当成了一条鱼,但当它尝出人肉的味道时,就会决定放弃并游开。在第二种情形中,鲨鱼会用鼻子推搡你,以弄清你是否适合被食用,如果它觉得适合,便会咬你。而在第三种情形中,鲨鱼会等待你游过,然后突然攻击你。后两种攻击类型对人类来说往往是致命的。

遵循这些建议,以降低被鲨鱼攻击的风险:

不要在黑暗中游泳。在黑暗中,鲨鱼仍能看得见你,而你却看不见它们。

如果你有刚受伤的伤口,不要在海洋中游泳。鲨鱼在很远处便能嗅到血腥味。

不要穿鲜亮的衣服或佩戴珠宝首饰,因为鲨鱼会被颜色或明亮物体的闪光吸引。

集体行动,因为鲨鱼通常会避开人群。

最近,随着水上运动更加普及,鲨鱼攻击事件也在持续增多。如果鲨鱼攻击你,遵循以下建议:保持冷静。不要慌张。

用你的拳头击打鲨鱼的鼻子。

用你的手指戳鲨鱼的眼睛。

不要害怕鲨鱼:你被闪电击中的几率要比受到鲨鱼袭击的几率大三十倍。

鸽子的奇妙世界

万籁俱寂的夜晚。除了一名哨兵在站岗放哨,所有士兵都在梦乡。突然一道闪光,枪声四起!他们遭到攻击了!数百名敌军士兵冲向了他们。除非获得救援,否则他们全都会被杀死。他们该怎么办?

一名军官飞快地在一张小纸片上写道:“受袭!速援!”

他把纸片卷起来,放进一个小盒子里,然后伸手探入一个笼子,捉出一只鸟来。他将信系在它的腿上后,便松开鸟儿。它立刻飞向天空,消失在黑暗中。

这只鸟会及时到达吗?他们会得救吗?

虽然这似乎令人难以置信,但是那名军官所用的鸟儿和我们常在公园里看到的一种鸟是同样的——鸽子。鸽子有着极强的方向感,能从很远的地方找到回家的路。确实,据知鸽子能飞行远达1800公里回到家。因为这个缘故,鸽子自古以来就被用于携带消息甚至邮件。然而,它们的最大用途却是在战争中发现的。在第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战期间,鸽子被军方用来和前线往返传递消息,挽救了许多士兵的生命,甚至帮助赢得了一些重要的胜利。

鸽子是怎么认路的呢?鸽子体内似乎有一只罗盘,告诉它们何处是北。这个罗盘是如何,工作的仍然是个谜。当然,由于仅靠一只罗盘不足以认路,它们似乎也使用视觉乃至嗅觉去辨明应该走哪条路。和人类不同,它们从不迷路,总是能找到归家的路。

Unit 2

Reading

英语及其历史

有史以来,在不列颠共同生活着来自许爹不同国家和文化背景的人们。英语就是由这些人带来的语法和词汇构成的。那就是为何英语有这么多使人困惑的不解规则。

古英语

古英语和现今我们说的英语完全不同。事实上,如果现在听到古英语,我们会听不懂。公元5世纪中叶前,生活在不列颠的人都说一种叫凯尔特语的语言。然后,来自欧洲大陆的两个日耳曼部族——盎格鲁

人和撒克逊人——占领了不列颠。古英语是他们的语言混合而成的。(英语及英国人都是从盎格鲁这个词而来的;Angle这个词在古英语里拼作Engle。)除了像伦敦这样的地名外,极少数的凯尔特单词成了古英语的一部分。在9世纪末,来自北欧诸国(如丹麦和挪威)的维京人开始向不列颠移居。他们带来了他们的语言,这些语言也与古英语交汇在了一起。到了十世纪,古英语已是英格兰的官方语言。

现在当我们讲英语时,我们有时会对用哪些单词或短语而感到困惑。这是因为英语有着许多来自不同语言的单词和短语,这些单词和短语有着相似的意思。比如,sick-词就是来自由盎格鲁和撒克逊人曾经用过的一个词,而ill则来自曾经被挪威人用过的一个词。

中古英语

中古英语是给大约12世纪到15世纪期间使用过的英语起的名字。在这一新型英语的发展中,许多东西起了作用。最大的贡献来自于讲法语的诺曼人,他们于1066年击败英格兰并控制了这个国家。然而,诺曼征服对英语的影响并不及约600年前盎格鲁人和撒克逊人的胜利对英语产生的影响,那场胜利导致古英语替代了凯尔特语。尽管诺曼人在统治英格兰的整整250年间一直讲法语,但是法语并没有取代英语成为第一语言。但另一方面,英语也确实借用了许多法语单词,因此产生了更多意思相近的单词,比如answer(来自于古英语)和reply(来自于古法语)。了解有关动物和肉的词汇是怎么演变而来的,是件挺有趣的事。诺曼人征服英格兰之后,许多英国人以仆人的身份从事饲养动物的工作。因此,我们现在所用的大多数表示专为肉食而饲养的动物的单词,比如cow(母牛)、sheep(羊)和pig(猪),来自于古英语。然而,由于这些动物的肉是供应给话曼人的,所以指代这些动物的肉的词来自于古法语,如beef(牛肉)、mutton(羊肉)、pork(猪肉)和bacon(熏猪肉,成猪肉)。

古法语也为中古英语做出了其他贡献。在古英语中,单词变复数采用了日耳曼语中单词变复数的方法。比如说,他们说housen而不是houses,说shosen而不是shoes。当诺曼人控制英格兰之后,他们开始使用法语的复数构成形式,在house和shoe后面加s。只有很少的单词保留了日耳曼语的复数形式,如man/men和child/children。

诺曼征服之后,上层社会的人讲法语,而普通人则讲英语。但是到了14世纪后半叶时,英语已被英格兰所有社会阶层广泛使用。1399年,亨利四世成了英格兰国王。他的母语是英语,他在所有正式场合都使用英语。

现代英语

现代英语是在16世纪的文艺复兴时期出现的。由于这个原因,现代英语中含有许多拉丁语及希腊语单词。在此期间,英语发音也经历了巨大的变化。当然.这并不是英语语言变化的终结。英语在未来是否会继续变化,这一问题是很容易问答的。可以肯定的是,这一变化过程将会继续,人们将会不断地发明新的单词和新的表达方式。

Project

汉字的发展

汉语与西方语言不同,区别在于它不使用字母,而是用汉字表示思想、物体和行为。中文的词语是通过把不同的汉字放在一起而组成的。在许多情况下,一个单字也能构成一个词。通过研究这些汉字是如何发展的就可以考察汉语的历史了。

汉字起源于数千年前。根据古代传说,一位名叫仓颉的人发明了汉字。他在某个冬日打猎时,看到各种动物留在雪中的足迹,他发现足迹的形状各不相同。于是他想到可以用不同的形状来代表不同物体。最初的汉字只是表现有形物体的图画。随着时间的推移,一些汉字被简化了,而另一些则变得更加复杂。不过总的来说,汉字从图画发展成了标准形式。表示“山”的汉字最初是三座山峰并列,继而变成了一座山峰和三条线,随着时间的推移,最终演变成了现在使用的字形。

并非所有的汉字都从物体的图画演变而来。有时候为了表达概念,某些汉字由两个或多个汉字组合而成。比如,“休”是由表示“人”和“树”的汉字组合而成的,“因”字则是由人字位于框中构成的。另一些汉字则用于表示方向和数字。只要看它们的字形,就可以很容易区别它们的意思,比如汉字“上”和“下”,其字形恰好相反。

虽然这几种类型的汉字能够表意,但是它们的缺点之一是其字形不具有表音的功能。因此便出现了一

种应对之策,即汉字的一部分表意,另一部分表音。今天使用的许多汉字便是用这种方式创造出来的。

20世纪50年代,中国政府推广简化汉字,现在它们已在中国大陆全面普及。

布莱叶盲文的故事

通常,当我们谈到阅读时,我们会想到用眼睛去看纸上墨水写成的字母。然而,情况并不一定总是这样。比如,盲人无法看到东西,但他们仍能阅读书籍。

将盲人领入阅读世界的人是路易斯·布莱叶(1809-1852)。布莱叶在三岁时因为受伤而失明。十岁时,他进入巴黎一所盲人学校就读。那时候,供盲人阅读的书籍是用纸压在金属丝上来形成字母。因为金属丝很重,所以每本书都会重达100磅,整个系统使用起来非常不方便。事实上,学校图书馆也只有14本这样的书。

1821年,一位士兵参观学校时向学生们展示了一种战时夜间传递信息的方法。他的方法是使用带小凸点的纸张,这些小凸点可以用手指感觉出来。字母表里的每一个字母都由12个点组成的不同形状来表示。因此士兵们可以用手指触摸凸点来阅读信息。

虽然学生们都觉得士兵的想法非常有趣,但这一方法太过复杂,并不实用。然而年轻的布莱叶采纳了这个想法并着手完善它。15岁时,他创造出了可以由6个凸点表示字母的体系。“布莱叶盲人点字法”,这一当今被全世界盲人广泛使用的阅读体系就此诞生了。

盲人可以轻松的用手指辨别布莱叶盲文。他们也可以使用特殊的打字机,方便地用布莱叶盲文书写。今天,布莱叶盲文是世界上最为普及的盲人阅读及书写体系,几乎每种语言,包括汉语,都有着自己的布莱叶盲文版本供盲人使用。

篇二:牛津高中英语模块3课文对照 翻译 百度上传

Unit 1

Fog

Fog warning

When Polly left home that morning, the city was already covered in a grey mist. At lunch, the radio forecast that the mist would become a thick fog in the afternoon. At four o'clock, Polly left work and stepped out into the fog .She wondered if the buses would still be running.

No buses to King Street

Once out in the street, she walked quickly towards her usual bus stop.

‘How far are you going?’ the bus conductor asked her before he took her fare.

‘King Street.’ said Polly.

‘Sorry,Miss’ replied the man, ‘the truth is that it is too foggy for the bus to run that far. Take the Underground to Green Park. The weather might be better there and you might be able to get a taxi.’

A tall man

As Polly observed the passengers on the train, she had a feeling that she was being watched by a tall man in a dark overcoat. At last the train arrived at Green Park station. While the rest of the passengers were getting out, she glanced at the faces around her. The tall man was nowhere to be soon.

Footsteps

When Polly got to the station entrance, it was empty. Outside, wherever she looked the fog lay like a thick, grey cloud. There was no one in sight. Polly set off towards Park Street. As she heard a man’s voice in her ear saying ‘Sorry.’ The man moved away. She could feel her heart beating with fear.

The helpful stranger

Then she heard the sound again-soft footsteps behind her. A minute before, she had wished for someone to come along. Now she wanted to run, but fear held her still. The footsteps seemed close now. Then a man’s voice came out of the darkness. ‘Is anybody there?’

Polly hesitated. At last she answered, ‘Hello, I think I’m lost. ’

A few seconds later, a hand reached out and grasped her arm. Polly found herself staring up at the face of an old man with a beard.

‘Maybe I can help you. Which road do you want?’ he asked.

‘I live at 86 King Street.’ Polly replied.

‘Just take my hand.’ said the man. ‘Come with me. You’ll be all right.’ He took Polly’s hand. ‘Watch out for the step here.’

In his other hand the man carried a stick. Polly heard it hit the step. ‘I can remember some terrible fogs, but maybe that was before your time. I can’t see your face, but you sound young. How old are you?’

‘Just twenty.’ answered Polly.

‘Ah, twenty ! A nice age to be. I was young once. Now we’re at the crossroads. Turn left here.’

‘I’m quite lost now. Are you sure you know the way?’ Polly was beginning to feel frightened again.’

‘Of course. You really shouldn’t feel anxious,’ He held her hand more firmly.

The grateful helper

‘Here we are. King Street.’ He stopped.

‘Thank you so much for coming to my aid.’ said Polly in relief. ‘Would you like to come in and rest for a while?’

‘It’s very nice of you.’ said the man, ‘but I’ll be off. There may be more people lost today, and I’d like to help them. You see, a fog this bad is rare. It gives me the chance to pay back the help that people give me when it’s sunny. A blind person like me can’t get across the road without help, except in a fog like this.’

P18

Project

Shark attacks

There are nearly 400 different types of sharks, but only about 30 types are known to have attacked human beings. Many people know that the most dangerous shark is the great white shark, probably because they have seen the film Jaws. However, two other sharks are also rather dangerous: the tiger shark and the bull shark. Contrary to what many people might assume, evidence shows that sharks seldom attack humans. There are three types of shark

attacks. In the main type, the shark attacks you because it mistakes you for a fish, but when it tastes human flesh it decides to give up and swims away. In the second type, the shark pushes you with its nose to find out if you are fit to be eaten, and then bites you if it thinks you are. In the third type, the shark waits for you to swim by, and then attacks you suddenly. The last two types of attack more often result in the death of humans.

To reduce the risk of a shark attack, you should follow these suggestions.

Do not swim in the dark. Sharks can still see you but you cannot see them.

Do not go swimming in the ocean if you have a fresh wound. Sharks can smell blood over a long distance.

Do not wear bright clothing or jewellery, because sharks are attracted to the flash of, colours and bright objects. Stay in groups, as sharks usually avoid large numbers of people.

Recently, shark attacks have been increasing as water sports are becoming more popular. If a shark attacks you, follow the advice below.

Keep calm. Do not panic.

Hit the shark on the nose with your fist.

Stick your finger in the shark's eye.

Don't be frightened by sharks: you

are 3o times more likely to be hit by lightning than be attacked by a shark.

The wonderful world of pigeons

It is night. All is quiet. The soldiers are asleep while a guard watches for the

enemy. There is a flash, and the sound of guns! They are being attacked!

Hundreds of enemy soldiers rush towards them. They are all going to be

killed unless they get help. What should they do?

An officer writes a short message quickly on a small piece of paper: 'Being

attacked! Hurry!'

He rolls up the paper and puts it into a small case, and then reaches into a

cage and gets a bird. Attaching the message to its leg, he sets the bird loose. It

immediately flies into the air and disappears in the dark.

Will the bird arrive in time? Will they be saved?

Though it may seem hard to believe, the bird the officer uses is the same bird

often seen in public parks--the pigeon. Pigeons have a wonderful sense of

direction and can find their way home over long distances. Indeed, pigeons

have been known to fly home from as far away as 1,800 kilometres. That is

why pigeons have been used since ancient times to carry the news or even

the mail. However, it was in war that they found their greatest use. During

both World War I and II, pigeons were employed by armies to carry messages

to and from the front lines, saving the lives of many soldiers and even

helping win some important victories.

How do pigeons find their way? Pigeons appear to have a compass inside

them that tells them which way is north. How this compass works remains a

mystery. Of course, since a compass alone is not enough to find one's way,

they also appear to use their sight and even their sense of smell to tell them

which way they should go. Unlike humans, they never get lost and can

always find their way home.

Unit 2

English and its history

All through history, people from many different countries and cultures have lived together in Britain. The English language is made up of the grammar and vocabulary these people brought to Britain. That is why English has so many difficult rules that confuse people.

Old English

Old English is very different from the English we speak nowadays. In fact, we would not be able to understand it if we heard it today. Before the 5th century, people in Britain all spoke a language called Celtic. Then two Germanic groups from the European mainland—the Angles and the Saxons—occupied Britain. Old English consisted of a mixture of their languages. (Both the English language and the English people are named after the Angles; the word Angle was spelt Engle in Old English.) Aside from place names such as London, very few Celtic words became part of Old English. At the end of the 9th century, the Vikings, people from Northern European countries such as Denmark and Norway, began to move to Britain. They brought with them their languages, which also mixed with Old English. By the 10th century, Old English had become the official language of England.

When we speak English today, we sometimes fe

牛津高中英语课文朗读

el puzzled about which words or phrases to use. This is because English has many words and phrases from different languages, but with similar meanings. For example, the word sick came from a word once used by the Angles and the Saxons, while ill came from a word once used by the Norwegians.

Middle English

Middle English is the name given to the English used from around the 12th to the 15th centuries. Many things played a part in the development of this new type of English. The most important contribution was from the Normans, a French-speaking people who defeated England and took control of the country in 1066. However, the Norman Conquest did not affect English as mush as the Angles and the Saxons’ victory about 600 years earlier, which led to Old English replacing Celtic. Even though the Normans spoke French for the entire 250 years they ruled England, French did not replace English as the first language. On the other hand, the English language did borrow many words from French. This resulted in even more words with similar meanings, such as answer (from Old English) and reply (from Old French). It is interesting to learn how the words for most animals raised for food, such as cow, sheep and pig, came from Old English. However, the words for the meat of these animals, which was served to the Normans, came from Old French: beef, mutton, pork and bacon.

Old French made other contributions to Middle English as well. In Old English, the Germanic way of making words plural was used. For example, they said housen instead of houses, and shoen instead of shoes. After the Normans took control, they began using the French way of making plurals, adding an -s to house and shoe. Only a few words kept their Germanic plural forms, such as man/men and child/children.

After the Norman Conquest, high-class people spoke French while common people spoke English. However, by the latter half of the 14th century, English had come into widespread use among all classes in England. In 1399, Hey Ⅳ became King of England. His mother tongue was English, and he used English for all official events.

Modern English

Modern English appeared during the Renaissance in the 16th century. Because of this Modern English includes many Latin and Greek words. Pronunciation also went through huge changes during this period. Of course, this was not the end of the changes in the English language. The question of whether English will keep on changing in the future is easy to answer. It is certain that this process will continue, and people will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things.

Project

The development Chinese characters

The Chinese language differs from Western languages in that, instead of an alphabet, it

uses characters which stand for ideas, objects or deeds. Chinese words are formed by

putting together different characters. In many cases, a single character can also make up a word. The history of the Chinese language can be examined by looking at

how these characters developed.

Chinese writing began thousands of years ago. According to an ancient

story, a man named Cang Jie invented Chinese writing. One winter day

while he was hunting, he saw the tracks of animals in the snow and

observed that the appearance of each one was different. Then he had the

idea that he could use different shapes to represent different objects. The

first Chinese characters were drawings of physical objects. Some characters

have been simplified and others have been made more difficult over time.

However, as a whole, the characters have developed from drawings into

standard forms. The character for a mountain was at first three mountaintops together.

This became one mountaintop and three lines, and over time turned into the character

used nowadays.

Not all characters were developed from drawings of objects. Sometimes to express ideas, some characters were made by combining two or more characters together. For example, 'rest' was made up of the characters for a man and a tree. The character 'prisoner' was

formed with a 'man' inside a square. Other characters were developed for directions and numbers. It is easy to distinguish their meanings by looking at them, for example, the

characters for 'up' and 'down', which are opposites of each other.

Though these kinds of characters indicate meanings, one of their shortcomings is that

they do not show how they should be pronounced. Therefore, a method was developed to have one part of a character indicate the meaning and the other suggest the

pronunciation. Many Chinese characters used today were made this way.

In the 1950s the Chinese government introduced simplified Chinese characters and now they have widespread use in China's mainland.

The story of Braille

Usually, when we talk about reading, we think of using our eyes to see letters written in ink on paper. However, this is not always true. For example, blind people cannot see, but they can still read books.

The man who introduced blind people to reading was Louis Braille (1809-1852). Braille lost his eyesight at the age of three as a result of an injury. When he was ten, he went to a school for the blind in Paris. In those days, books for blind people used paper pressed against metal wire to form letters. Since the metal wire was heavy, each book weighed as much as 100 pounds. The whole system was not convenient for use. Indeed, the school library only had fourteen such books in it. In 1821, a soldier visited the school and showed the students a system for passing messages at night during times of battle. His system used paper with small, raised dots that could be felt with the fingers. Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a different pattern which consisted of twelve dots. The soldiers would drag their fingers over the raised dots to read the message. While the students found the soldier's idea interesting, the system was too difficult to be of practical use. However, young Louis Braille took the idea and worked on it. At the age of fifteen, he created a system with patterns of six raised dots representing each letter. 'Braille', the system for reading used today by blind people around the world, was thus born.

The blind can easily recognize Braille with the fingers. They can also easily write in Braille with a special typewriter. Today, it is the most common system used by blind people for reading and writing, and nearly every language, including Chinese, has its own version of Braille for its people to use.

Unit 3

Lost civilizations

Day 1,15 July

篇三:牛津高中英语教材中阅读策略

牛津高中英语教材中阅读策略

一、阅读策略问题

《牛津高中英语》共11个模块(分为11册书),39个单元(前5个模块各3个单元,后6个模块各4个单元),每单元阅读板块课文后都配有Reading strategy(阅读策略),共计39个阅读策略。在教学过程中,我们发现这些阅读策略的设计本身存在一些问题,教师和学生在运用这些策略过程中也出现了一些问题,阻碍了阅读教学效果的提高,使阅读策略没有发挥应有的作用。

1. 策略描述缺乏概括性

下表为各模块阅读文章标题及相应的阅读策略:

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为了表述简洁,我们把这39个策略按模块及单元顺序标为策略1、2?39。策略1是这样描述的:Reading strategy: skimming and scanning。这个表述具有概括性,可以翻译成“阅读策略:略读和扫读”,字面意思清楚,阅读要求明确,符合策略表述习惯,有利于教学和运用。但是策略2:Reading strategy: reading a play,直译成汉语“阅读策略:阅读戏剧”,看不出阅读策略是什么,只是表明了阅读的文本。当然,下文的解释阐述了当阅读这种文体(戏剧)时,应采用何种策略,对读者是有一定的帮助。不过,这种表达对策略的说明显然缺乏概括性,不利于教师教学,也不利于学生在阅读时使用。如果将其理解成“戏剧阅读策略”尚可,当学生遇到戏剧文体时,就采用这种策略。不过,策略的表述仍然缺乏明确性及可操作性。

上表中类似于策略1表述明确、概括的其它策略不多,类似于策略2的却比比皆是,这无疑给师生带来了很多不便。

2. 策略缺乏分类

39个阅读策略分布在每个单元阅读文本后面,看上去是一盘散沙,没有进行分类,不利于学生掌握,也不利于在阅读理解中实际运用,急需教师对这些策略进行分析、梳理、归类,并且还需要教师对这些策略进行概括。

3. 教师对策略把握缺乏全面性

39个阅读策略没有穷尽现有阅读策略,并且,随着研究者的进一步研究,还会有其他的策略被开发出来。但就是这39个阅读策略,很多师生也只接触了其

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中的一部分,可以说,教师对这些阅读策略的把握缺乏全面性。比如,朱惠芳 “《牛津高中英语》教学中阅读策略探究和能力培养”(见《中小学英语教学与研究》2009年第5期)一文,列表说明阅读策略只列到模块8,共27个策略。这并非为了节约版面,也不是偶然的,其实这代表了一部分教师处理《牛津高中英语》教材的做法,教材一般教到模块8就行了,高三年级阶段就是做高考模拟题或历年各地高考题。所以,师生一般只把握其中的部分策略。

4. 策略运用缺乏针对性

在平时的教学实践中,部分教师只是照本宣科,在教某一单元的课文时,能够运用文后的阅读策略指导该课课文的阅读,但在其他情况下,却缺少这样的指点。由于对以上所列39个策略认识模糊,分类不清,他们在遇到特定的文本时,不知采用何种阅读策略,也不知道哪些策略对该特定文本阅读理解更为有效。因此,部分教师索性抛开阅读策略,只是抓住高考题中的阅读理解题型,紧扣所谓的答题技巧教学。这样做虽然提高了学生的高考成绩,但并没有真正促进学生阅读理解能力的提高。

一、 阅读策略分类 1. 阅读策略分类综述

学术界引用较多的是Heaton(2000)对阅读技能的分类。Heaton将阅读技能分为14项:

(1)

联系发音与词形识别词汇和短语的能力(Recognise words and word groups, associating sounds with their corresponding graphic symbols.); (2) (3) (4) (5)

推测词义的能力(Deduce the meaning of words.);

理解明示信息的能力(Understand explicitly stated information.); 理解句子内部关系的能力(Understand relations within the sentence.); 根据词汇衔接手段和语法衔接手段理解语篇各部分之间的关系的能力(Understand relations between parts of a text through both lexical devices and grammatical cohesive devices.); (6)

识别阅读材料中的时间或空间关系以及文章脉络的能力(Perceive temporal and spatial relationships, and also sequences of ideas.); (7)

理解词汇的概念意义的能力(Understand conceptual meaning.);

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(8) 预测或推断下文的能力(Anticipate and predict what will come next in the text.);

(9) 归纳材料大意和语篇中其他显著特征的能力(Identify the main idea and other salient features in a text.);

(10) 归纳和推理的能力(Generalise and draw conclusions.);

(11) 理解隐含信息的能力(Understand information not explicitly stated.); (12) 略读和扫读的能力(Skim and scan.); (13) 评判性阅读的能力(Read critically.);

(14) 根据阅读材料和阅读目的的不同灵活选择阅读技能和阅读策略的能

力(Adopt a flexible approach and vary reading strategies according to the type of material being read and the purpose for which it is being read.)。

以上14项阅读能力分类概括得比较全面,我们也可以将这些阅读能力理解成阅读策略,比如:略读和扫读的能力,可以理解成略读和扫读策略。但是这14项能力没有按一定的线索进行归类,显得比较零散。有些能力也比较抽象,可操作性不是太强。

Block(1986)用“有声思维法”提示了阅读理解过程中所使用的策略,并依据自上而下和自下而上的阅读模式将这些策略分类全局策略(general strategies)和局部策略(local strategies)。全局策略指读者把握整篇文章、运用背景知识、抓住中心大意、理清文章结构等策略。全局策略的使用有助于读者调动一切言语和非言语手段积极主动地获取信息。利用构词法、句型和语法规则分析词、句的策略则称为局部策略。这种只利用纯语言知识的策略可能导致读者形成阅读视幅过窄、反复回读、逐词逐句地阅读文章等不良阅读习惯,从而影响阅读速度和阅读效率。

潘海燕(2003)根据Block的观点,并结合中国高中生的实际情况,对阅读策略的分类归纳如下表:

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潘海燕的归类条理清楚,但是有些策略概括表述有待推敲,比如:“上下文”

策略,不如改成“上下文猜词策略”。

2. 课程标准阅读要求

国家英语课程标准中语言技能的分级要求共分九级,具体内容分为听、说、读、写四个部分,高中部分对读的技能提出以下主要要求:

(1) 能根据上下文、构词法、句子结构猜测词义; (2) 能理解段落中各句子之间的逻辑关系;

(3) 能找出文章中的主题,理解故事的情节,根据上下文线索推理、预测故事情节的发展和可能的结局;

(4) 能从一般文字资料中获取主要信息和观点;能理解阅读材料中不同的观点和态度;

(5) 能理解文章主旨、作者意图;

(6) 能提取、筛选和重新组织简单文章中的信息; (7) 能利用上下文的线索帮助理解; (8) 能识别不同文体的特征;

(9) 能通过分析句子结构理解难句和长句; (10) 能根据情景及上下文猜测不熟悉的语言现象。 3. 重新概括分类策略

本研究参考Heaton(2000)和潘海燕(2003)的分类,按照课程标准的要求,对《牛津高中英语》中39个策略进行分析、总结并归类如下:

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