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高中英语语法通霸定语从句

时间:2016-06-25 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:精品-高中英语语法通霸-7.定语从句语法常考点专项总结归纳讲解与高考真题详细分类练习题及答案

第七章 定语从句

主句、从句、关系词

相关概念

关系副词

关系副词在从句中只能作状语。when 指时间,where指地点,why指原因,how不能作关系词。如: weather may be better.

不能作关系词)

例句:This is the boy who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition.

主句:在含有定语从句的复合句中,除去定语从句后

的部分,是句子的主句。 (例句中,This is the boy.是主句。) 定语从句:相当于形容词,修饰主句中的一个名词或

代词(有时修饰整个主句,相当于主句的一个定语。) (例句中,who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition是定语从句,修饰the boy。) 先行词:先行词就是被定语从句修饰的名词等,它总

是出现在定语从句的前面。 (例句中,the boy是先行词。) 关系词:关系词指用来引导定语从句的词,分为关系

代词和关系副词。(例句中,who是关系代词。) 关系词的三个作用

作定语从句的一个句子成分。

起着连接主句和从句的作用(参看P. 错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到引用源。)。

代指被修饰的先行词。(例句中,who作定语从句的主语,同时起着连接作用,在意思上,指代的是前面的先行词the boy。)

关系代词

基础过关

1. 用合适的关系词完成句子。

The man ______ /______ was here yesterday is a painter.

The man ______ /______ /______ /______ I saw is called Smith.

A child ______ parents are dead is called an orphan. I’d like a room ______ window looks out over the sea.

A letter ______ /______ is written in pencil is hard to read.

The letter ______ / ______ /______ I received from him yesterday is very important.

That is the boy ______ / ______ / ______ / ______ you are looking for.

Do you know the reason ______ he was late for the meeting?

This is the school ______ I used to study.

I still remember the day ______ we met for the first time.

2. 用符号标出下列句子的主句、定语从句、先行词和关系词。 主句:

:() 关系词:

The movie that we saw last night is very exciting. Have you bought the book which we talked about?

指人时可以用who, 也可用that。

Do you know the boy who/that is my desk mate?

The man who/that was killed in the accident is Tom’s uncle.

指物时可以用which, 也可用that。

I like visiting places which/that are not far away.

How do you like the film which/that was shown last Sunday.

whose可以指人也可以指物。

He was a painter whose pictures were not well- known in his life time.

The tree whose leaves are red was planted last year. 关系代词作宾语时可以省略。

I like the meal that/which / ( ) we had last night.

Do you know the boy who/whom/that/( ) we talked about just now?

注:()表示关系代词省略

I still remember the day which we spent together last week.

He still lives in the house whose windows face south. The boy whose father is a policeman speaks English most fluently in our class.

The girl who you met was John’s sister.

There is no reason why we shouldn’t be friends.

The days were gone when we had to travel on horses. Is this the hospital where you were born?

They arrived in the early morning when the sky was still dark.

关系词的选择

找:(略)

还原:根据先行词的提示,这三句话的定语从句还原成完整的一句话后分别为: I once studied at the school.

The school is the most famous in the city. My father teaches English at the school.

粗斜体部分为根据先行词的意思把关系词还原后的部分。

替换:根据 “对画线部分提问”的规则,1.和3.用where, 2.本该用what, 在定语从句中该用what的要换为which/that。

因此,答案为:1.where;2. that/which;3. where

关系词一般要位于定语从句的句首

【2009江西】The house I grew up ______ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. inC. in that D. in which 答案与分析:A没有关系词,不能连接两句话;C介词后不能用that;D关系词一般不位于句末;而B可以看作是关系代词作宾语、放在句首并且省略了。因此选B。

利用一“找”二“还”三“替换”的方法选择关系词 Is this the reason ______ he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why Is this the reason ______ he was so careless in his work?

A. that B. what C. how D. why The reason ______ he didn’t come was ______ he was ill.

A. why; thatB. that; why C. for that; thatD. for which; what He lives in a village ______ is not far from the city. A. which B. where C. what D. whose He lives in the village ______ he was born. A. which B. where C. what D. whose

In an hour, we travel to places ______ could have taken our ancestors days to reach. A. where B. when C. which D. whatIn an hour, we travel to places ______ we can relax and get refreshed.

选用哪个关系词,关键是看关系词在定语从句中作....含有定语从句的复合句可以分为两部分:主句 和从句。关系词是定语从句的一个成分。

选用关系词,要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分,

而不是看先行词是什么词性。

什么成分

He worked in the factory which produces TV sets.

He worked in the factory where his father had worked.

I like the school which is near to my home. I like the school where my sister studies.

在句1和句2中,先行词前都有in, 但关系词有用which也有用where的;

在句3和句4中,先行词都是the school, 但关系词有用which也有用where的。

因此,我们可以看出,对关系词起决定性作用的并不是先行词。

在句1和句3中,关系词在定语从句中都是作主语,因此用的都是关系代词which;

在句2和句4中,关系词在定语从句中都是作状语,因此都是用关系副词where。

我们可以看出,用哪个关系词,主要看关系词在定...............语从句中作什么成分。 .........

选用关系词的方法:一“找”二“还”三“替换”

找:就是找出主句、从句、先行词和关系词。(参看本章第1讲)

还:根据先行词提示的意思,大胆地把定语从句还原(答疑qq 329950885)为完整的一句话。(可以添词) 替换:用关系词替换定语从句中还原后添加的部分,作主语和宾语用关系代词,作状语用关系副词。(时间状语用when,地点状语用where, 原因状语用why)(同初中时做的“对画线部分提问”相似,该用what的时候用which/that即可) 例如:

This is the school ______ I once studied.

This is the school ______ is the most famous in the city.

I am studying at a school ______ my father teaches English.

A. where C. which

B. when D. what

This is the factory ______ produces color TV sets. A. where B. the one where C. that D. in which

The place ______ interested me most was the

Children’s Palace. A. which B. where C. what D. in which The place ______ he had a good time last Sunday was the Children’s Palace. A. which B. where C. what D. in where I’ll never forget the days ______ we studied together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B I’ll never forget the days ______ we spent together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B If we want to have a bright future, we must learn to act in ways ______ do not do harm to other living things. A. in which B. / C. how D. that

【2010天津】—Can you believe I had to pay 30

dollars for a haircut?

—You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 【2011陕西】I walked up to the top of the hill with my friend, ______ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A. which B. where C. who D. that 【2011福建】She has a gift for creating an atmos- phere for her students ______ allows them to communicate freely with each other. A. which B. where C. what D. who 【2012江西】By 16:30, ______ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that

Is this the factory ______ color TV sets are produced? 【2013山东】Finally he reached a lonely island

A. when B. the one where ______ was completely cut off from the outside world. C. that D. in which A. when B. where C. which D. whom Is this factory ______ color TV sets are produced? A. which B. the one where C. that D. in which

只能用that不能用which的情况

VI. 【2010浙江】______ that’s important is that you are doing your best and moving in the right direction. A. One B. All C. EverythingD. Anything VII. There is no difficulty ______ can’t be overcome in the world. A. that B. whichC. who D. what VIII. All the apples ______ fell down were eaten by the pigs. A. that B. thoseC. which D. what IX. You can take any seat ______ is free. A. that B. /C. which D. it 先行词被最高级、序数词以及 the first, the last, the very, the only, the same修饰时

被这类词修饰时,关系代词常用that,不用which。

X. The most important thing ______ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; thatB. that; whichC. which; which D. that; that XI. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing. A. that B. it C. which D. who

先行词是anything, something, nothing,

everything等不定代词时

关系代词一般只用that,不用which。

I. He never reads anything ______ is not worth reading. A. which B. as C. who D. that II. Is there anything ______ to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belongD. which belongs

III. 【2010全国2】I refuse to accept the blame for something ______ was someone else’s fault.A. who B. that C. as D. what先行词是all, much,little, none或先行词被all, much, little, no, any修饰时

关系词只能用that, 不能用which。

All the people that are present burst into tears. IV. These people once had fame and fortune; now ______ is left to them is utter poverty. A. all that B. all what C. all whichD. that all V. There is not much ______ can be done. A. that B. whichC. what D. how

XII. The TV play I watched last night is the best one ______ I have watched this year. A. which B. what C. whose D. that XIII. This is the very film ______ I’ve long wished to see. A. which B. thatC. who D. whom XIV. I like the second football match ______ was held last week. A. which B. whoC. that D. / XV. This is the last time ______ I shall come here to help you. A. that B. whichC. when D. what XVI. It’s the third time ______ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词用that

XVII. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist ______ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that XVIII. Both the girl and her dog ______ were crossing the street were hit by a coming car. A. which B. who C. they D. that XIX. All the passengers and suitcases ______ were still waiting on the broken down bus had to be transferred to another long distance bus. A. they B. who C. which D. that XX. He talked a lot about things and persons ______ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what

注意:关系副词不受这些规则的影响

只是(答疑qq 329950885)在选用关系代词时才使用这些规则。如:

XXI. 【2010福建】Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose XXII. This is the same house ______ her grandfather was born.

A. that B. where C. which D. whose

其他有关关系词选择的规则

A. which B. them whom

C. that

D.

关系代词直接放在介词后面时,要用which,不用that;要用whom,不用who

第1章 【2011湖南】Julie was good at German, French

and Russian , all of ______ she spoke fluently.

A. who B. whom C. which D. that

引导非限制性定语从句时,要用which, who, whom,

不用that,也不能省略

第7章 【2008浙江】Yesterday she sold her car,

______ she bought a month ago. A. whom B. where C. that which

D.

第2章 【2008湖南】The growing speed of a plant is

influenced by a number of factors, ______ are beyond our control. A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that

第8章 【2010全国1】As a child, Jack studied in a

village school, ______ is named after his

grandfather.

A. which B. where C. what D. that

第3章 This is the museum ______ we saw an

exhibition the other day.

A. that B. which C. where that

D.

in

第9章 【2012全国Ⅱ】That evening, ______ I will tell

you more about later, I ended up working very

late.

A. that B. which C. what D. when

当先行词前面有which,who等疑问代词时,为避免重复,用关系代词that

同理,当先行词是that, those时,常用关系代词which或who。如:

第4章 【2009全国I】She brought with her three

friends, none of ______ I had ever met before.A. them B. who C. whom D. these 第5章 【2010浙江】The settlement is home to nearly

1,000 people, many of ______ left their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those the relatives from ______ you received gifts?

第6章 【2012上海】Have you sent thank-you notes to

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

He still talks like the man (that) he was ten years ago. 他谈起话来仍像十年前一样。 The train is the fastest train (that) there has ever been. 这列火车是有史以来最快的火车。

My typewriter is not the machine (that) it was. 我的打字机已不是过去的机器了。

第10章 Who is the person ______ is standing at the

gate of Beijing Tourism Tower? A. who B. that C. which whom

thing?

A. which B. who

D.

第13章 She was no longer the woman ______ she was.

A. that B. which to be.

A. what B. who

C. what

D. who

D. that

第11章 Who ______ has common sense will do such a

C. whom

第14章 She is no longer the sweet girl ______ she used

C. when

D. that

第12章 Those ______ not only from books but also

through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn

关系代词在从句中作表语或there be结构中的实意主语时, that可指人或物,且通常省略 (概括为:在从句中位于be后。此条仅作了解)

当先行词为one, ones, anyone, everyone, none, all(指人)时,关系代词常用who

Anyone who is against us is our enemy. 任何反对我们的人就是我们的敌人。

All who heard the story were amazed.所有听到这个故事的人都很惊讶。

whose可指人也可指物

② 【2010陕西】The old temple, ______ roof was damaged in storm, is now under repair. A. where B. whichC. its D. whose ③ 【2011全国I】The prize will go to the writer ______ story shows the most imagination. A. that B. whichC. whose D. what ④ 【2008陕西】The man pulled out a gold watch, ______ were made of small diamonds.

A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which ⑤ 【2009安徽】Many children, ______ parents are away working in big cities,are taken good care of in the village. A. their B. whose C. of them D. with whom ⑥ 【2012天津】 I wish to thank Professor Smith, without ______ help I would never have got this far. A. who B. whoseC. whom D. which ⑦ 【2013福建】The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which

whose 作关系代词可以指人也可指物,用作定语。 若指物,它还可以同of which互换; 若指人,则不

可与of whom互换

He lives in a house. Its window faces south. →He lives in a house whose window faces south. He lives in a house. The window of it faces south. →He lives in a house, the window of which faces south.

→He lives in a house, of which the window faces south.

He is the farmer. His son is studying in Qinghua University.

由于(答疑qq 329950885)我们一般说his son,不说the son of him; 说my book, 不说the book of me, 因此我们只能说:

He is the farmer whose son is studying in Qinghua University.

而不能说:He is the farmer, the son of whom is studying in Qinghua University.

名词前有冠词the时用of which, 名词前没有冠词时用whose

① I saw some trees ______ the leaves were black with disease.

A. where B. of which C. in which D. whose

as, but, than用作关系代词

篇二:精品-高中英语语法通霸2016-定语从句的用法讲解与专项练习题及答案

定语从句的用法讲解与专项练习题及答案

第1讲 关系词的选择技巧

① The man ______ /______ was here yesterday is a painter.

考点1. 相关概念 A. 主句、从句、关系词

例句:This is the boy who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition.

主句:在含有定语从句的复合句中,除去定语从句后的部

分,是句子的主句。 (例句中,This is the boy.是主句。) 定语从句:相当于形容词,修饰主句中的一个名词或代词(有时修饰整个主句,相当于主句的一个定语。) (例句中,who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition是定语从句,修饰the boy。) 先行词:先行词就是被定语从句修饰的名词等,它总是出

现在定语从句的前面。 (例句中,the boy是先行词。) 关系词:关系词指用来引导定语从句的词,分为关系代词和关系副词。(例句中,who是关系代词。) 关系词的三个作用

i. 作定语从句的一个句子成分。

ii. 起着连接主句和从句的作用(参看P. 错误!未定义书

签。错误!未找到引用源。)。 iii. 代指被修饰的先行词。(例句中,who作定语从句的

主语,同时起着连接作用,在意思上,指代的是前面的先行词the boy。) B. 关系代词

i. 指人时可以用who, 也可用that。

Do you know the boy who/that is my desk mate? The man who/that was killed in the accident is Tom’s uncle. ii. 指物时可以用which, 也可用that。

I like visiting places which/that are not far away. How do you like the film which/that was shown last Sunday. iii. whose可以指人也可以指物。

He was a painter whose pictures were not well- known in his life time.

The tree whose leaves are red was planted last year. iv. 关系代词作宾语时可以省略。

I like the meal that/which / ( ) we had last night. Do you know the boy who/whom/that/( ) we talked about just now? 注:()表示关系代词省略 C. 关系副词

关系副词在从句中只能作状语。when 指时间,where指地点,why指原因,how不能作关系词。如: ① We will put off the picnic until next week when the

weather may be better. ② He has reached the point where a change is needed. ③ That is no reason why you should leave. ④ 不能作关系词) 基础过关

1. 用合适的关系词完成句子。 ② The man ______ /______ /______ /______ I saw is called

Smith. ③ A child ______ parents are dead is called an orphan. ④ I’d like a room ______ window looks out over the sea. ⑤ A letter ______ /_____ is written in pencil is hard to read. ⑥ The letter ______ / ______ /______ I received from him

yesterday is very important. ⑦ That is the boy ______ / ______ / ______ / ______ you

are looking for. ⑧ Do you know the reason ______ he was late for the

meeting? ⑨ This is the school ______ I used to study.

⑩ I still remember the day ______ we met for the first time. 2. 用符号标出下列句子的主句、定语从句、先行词和关系词。

主句:

:( )

关系词:

① The movie that we saw last night is very exciting. ② Have you bought the book which we talked about? ③ I still remember the day which we spent together last

week. ④ He still lives in the house whose windows face south. ⑤ The boy whose father is a policeman speaks English most

fluently in our class. ⑥ The girl who you met was John’s sister. ⑦ There is no reason why we shouldn’t be friends.

⑧ They arrived in the early morning when the sky was still

dark. ⑨ The days were gone when we had to travel on horses. ⑩ Is this the hospital where you were born? 考点2. 关系词的选择技巧

A. 选用哪个关系词,关键是看关系词在定语从句中作什么....

成分

含有定语从句的复合句可以分为两部分:主句和从句。关系词是定语从句的一个成分。

选用关系词,要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分,而不是看先行词是什么词性。

① He worked in the factory which produces TV sets. ② He worked in the factory where his father had worked. ③ I like the school which is near to my home. ④ I like the school where my sister studies.

在句①和句②中,先行词前都有in, 但关系词有用which也有用where的;

在句③和句④中,先行词都是the school, 但关系词有用which也有用where的。

因此,我们可以看出,对关系词起决定性作用的并不是先

行词。

在句①和句③中,关系词在定语从句中都是作主语,因此用的都是关系代词which;

在句②和句④中,关系词在定语从句中都是作状语,因此都是用关系副词where。

我们可以看出,用哪个关系词,主要看关系词在定语从句..................中作什么成分。 ......

B. 选用关系词的方法:一“找”二“还”三“替换” 一. 找:就是先把句子分为主句和从句两部分,再找出先行词和关系词。(参看本章第1讲) 二. 还:根据先行词提示的意思,大胆地把定语从句还原为完整的一句话。(可以添词) 三. 替换:用关系词替换定语从句中还原后添加的部分,作主语和宾语用关系代词,作状语用关系副词。(时间状语用when,地点状语用where, 原因状语用why)(同初中时做的“对画线部分提问”相似,该用what的时候用which/that即可) 例如:

① This is the school ______ I once studied.

② This is the school ______ is the most famous in the city. ③ I am studying at a school ______ my father teaches

English. 找:(略)

还原:根据先行词的提示,这三句话的定语从句还原成完整的一句话后分别为: I once studied at the school.

The school is the most famous in the city. My father teaches English at the school.

粗斜体部分为根据先行词的意思把关系词还原后的部分。 替换:根据 “对画线部分提问”的规则,1.和3.用where, 2.本该用what, 在定语从句中该用what的要换为which/that。 因此,答案为:1.where;2. that/which;3. where C. 关系词一般要位于定语从句的句首

【2009江西】The house I grew up ______ has been taken down and replaced by an office building.

A. in it B. inC. in that D. in which

答案与分析:A没有关系词,不能连接两句话;C介词后不能用that;D关系词一般不位于句末;而B可以看作是关系代词作宾语、放在句首并且省略了。因此选B。 利用一“找”二“还”三“替换”的方法选择关系词 1. Is this the reason ______ he explained at the meeting for his

carelessness in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why 2. Is this the reason ______ he was so careless in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why 3. The reason ______ he didn’t come was ______ he was ill. A. why; that B. that; why C. for that; that D. for which; what 4. He lives in a village ______ is not far from the city. A. which B. where C. what D. whose 5. He lives in the village ______ he was born. A. which B. where C. what D. whose

6. In an hour, we travel to places ______ could have taken our

ancestors days to reach. A. where B. when C. which D. what 7. In an hour, we travel to places ______ we can relax and get refreshed. A. where B. when C. which D. what 8. I’ll never forget the days ______ we spent together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B 9. 【2014湖南】I am looking forward to the day ______ my daughter can read this book and know my feelings for her. A. as B. why C. when D. where 10. If we want to have a bright future, we must learn to act in ways ______ do not do harm to other living things. A. in which B. / C. how D. that 11. Is this the factory ______ color TV sets are produced? A. when B. the one where C. that D. in which 12. Is this factory ______ color TV sets are produced? A. which B. the one where C. that D. in which 13. This is the factory ______ produces color TV sets. A. where B. the one where C. that D. in which

14. 【2010天津】—Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut?

—You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 15. 【2011陕西】I walked up to the top of the hill with my friend, ______ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A. which B. where C. who D. that 16. 【2011福建】She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ______ allows them to communicate freely with each other. A. which B. where C. what D. who 17. 【2012江西】By 16:30, ______ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A. which B. when C. what D. that 18. 【2013山东】Finally he reached a lonely island ______ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom

I. 单句改错

1. 【2010重庆】Firstly, a friend is someone you can share your secrets. 2. 【2010重庆】After hearing your sad stories, he will say

some words that is nice and warm. 3. 【2006江西】I read your e-mail to qq 329950885 my

parents and showed them the photo you sent it to me. 4. I often think of the days when we spent on the island

together. 5. This is the museum where you visited the other day. 6. Have you ever been to Shanghai, where I left ten years ago? II. 语法填空(每空至多填三词)

7. 【2014新课标Ⅰ】Maybe you have a habit______ is driving

your family crazy.

第2讲 只能用that不能用which的情况

考点1. 先行词是anything, something, nothing, everything

等不定代词时 1. He never reads anything ______ is not worth reading.

A. which B. as C. who D. that 2. 【2010全国2】I refuse to accept the blame for something ______ was someone else’s fault.A. who B. that C. as D. what 考点2. 先行词是all, much,little, none或先行词被all, much,

little, no, any修饰时 3. There is not much ______ can be done.

A. that B. which C. what

D. how

12. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist ______ were

in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that 13. He talked a lot about things and persons ______ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 考点5. 关系代词在从句中作表语或there be结构中的实意

主语时, that可指人或物,且通常省略

(概括为:在从句中位于be后。此条仅作了解) He still talks like the man (that) he was ten years ago. 他谈起话来仍像十年前一样。

The train is the fastest train (that) there has ever been. 这列火车是有史以来最快的火车。

14. She is no longer the sweet girl ______ she used to be.

A. what B. who C. when D. that 考点6. 当先行词前面有which,who等疑问代词时,为避免

重复,用关系代词that

同理,当先行词是that, those时,常用关系代词which或who。如:

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

15. Who is the person ______ is standing at the gate of Beijing

Tourism Tower? A. who B. that C. which D. whom 16. Who ______ has common sense will do such a thing? A. which B. who C. whom D. that 17. Those ______ not only from books but also through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn 考点7. 注意:关系副词不受这些规则的影响

只是在选用关系代词时才使用这些规则。如: 18. 【2010福建】Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 19. This is the same house ______ her grandfather was born. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 4. There is no difficulty ______ can’t be overcome in the

world. A. that B. which C. who D. what 5. 【2014陕西】Please send us all the information______ you have about the candidate for the position. A. that B. which C. as D. what 6. You can take any seat ______ is free. A. that B. / C. which

D. it

考点3. 先行词被最高级、序数词以及 the first, the last, the

very, the only, the same修饰时 7. The most important thing ______ we should pay attention to

is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; that B. that; whichC. which; which D. that; that 8. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing. A. that B. it C. which who 9. This is the very film ______ I’ve long wished to see. A. which B. that C. who D. whom 10. This is the last time ______ I shall come here to help you. A. that B. which C. when D. what 11. It’s the third time ______ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 考点4. 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词用

that

第3讲 其他有关关系代词选择的规则

考点1. 只用which, who, whom不用that的情况

A. 关系代词直接放在介词后面时,要用which,不用that;

要用whom,不用who。 1. 【2011湖南】Julie was good at German, French and

Russian , all of ______ she spoke fluently. A. who B. whom C. which D. that 2. 【2008湖南】The growing qq 329950885 speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, ______ are beyond our control.

A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 3. This is the museum ______ we saw an exhibition the other day. A. that B. which C. where D. in that 4. 【2012上海】Have you sent thank-you notes to the relatives from ______ you received gifts? A. which B. them C. that D. whom B. 引导非限制性定语从句时,要用which, who, whom, 不用that,也不能省略。 (参看P7第6讲) 5. 【2010全国1】As a child, Jack studied in a village school,

______ is named after his grandfather. A. which B. where C. what D. that 6. 【2012全国Ⅱ】That evening, ______ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when 考点2. whose可指人也可指物

若指物,它还可以同of which互换; 若指人,一般不与of whom互换

1. He lives in a house. Its window faces south.

→He lives in a house whose window faces south. He lives in a house. The window of it faces south.

→He lives in a house, the window of which faces south. →He lives in a house, of which the window faces south. 2. He is the farmer. His son is studying in Qinghua

University. 由于我们一般说his son,不说the son of him, 因此我们只能说:

He is the farmer whose son is studying in Qinghua University.

而不能说:He is the farmer, the son of whom is studying in Qinghua University.

7. I saw some trees ______ the leaves were black with disease.

A. where B. of which C. in which D. whose 8. 【2010陕西】The old temple, ______ roof was damaged in storm, is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose 9. 【2014山东】A company______ profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad. A. which B. whose C. who D. why 10. 【2013福建】The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ______ lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 考点3. 当先行词为one, ones, anyone, everyone, none, all(指

人)时,关系代词常用who Anyone who is against us is our enemy. 任何反对我们的人就是我们的敌人。 All who heard the story were amazed. 所有听到这个故事的人都很惊讶。 考点4. what不能作关系代词;one 作同位语

11. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable

moment, ______ I will always treasure. A. that B. one C. it D. what 12. Her sister has become a lawyer, ______ he wanted to be. A. who B. that C. what D. which 13. For Tim this was the beginning of a new life, ______ he thought he would never see. A. what B. that C. one D. it 14. 【2010山东】Helping others is a habit, ______ you can learn even at an early age. A. it B. that C. what D. one

I. 单句改错

第4讲 as, but, than用作关系代词

考点1. as引导限制性定语从句

例题:I had never heard such an interesting story ______ you told me yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. that/which 有些同学可能选择D,这说明有关定语从句的基本知识学得不错,但知识还是有漏洞。 要记住:

如果先行词被such, the same, so+形容词+a/an,as+形容词+a/an修饰时,这时关系词我们要用as。

此时,as同that, who, which, whom一样,是关系代词,代指the same, so, such和as引导的短语,常译作“正如,像”,在定语从句中通常作主语、宾语和表语。 A. 先行词被such修饰时,构成“such…as…”。

It’s such a heavy stone as nobody can move. 那是一块重得没人能移得动的石头。(as作宾语) Don’t trust such men as praise you to your face. 不要相信那种当面吹捧你的人。(as作主语) B. 先行词被the same修饰时,构成“the same…as…”。

We have arrived at the same conclusion as they have.

我们已得出和他们同样的结论。(as作主语) This is the same watch as was worn by John. 这与约翰戴的那块表一样。(as作主语)

C. 在 “as…as…” 句型中,第一个as后面跟名词时。

它可以看作是 “as+形容词+as” 的一种变化形式。 He is as good as his brother. 他和他弟弟一样好。 这句话还可以表达为:

He is as good a boy as his brother.

It’s as pleasant a film as I have ever seen. (as作宾语) 这是一部和我以往看的同样好的电影。

(参看P.错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到引用源。) D. 在“so+形+冠+n. + as”句型中 (He is so good a student as every teacher likes.)

它可以看作是先行词被such修饰时关系代词用as(第一种情况)的一种变化形式。

He is such a good student as every teacher likes. 他是一个每个老师都喜欢的这样一个好学生。

用so可以表达为:

He is so good a student as every teacher likes.

(参看P.错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到引用源。) 考点2. the same…as与the same…that

the same…as指同一类,the same…that指同一个。 I bought the same car as yours.

我买的那辆汽车和你的一模一样。

This is the same bag (the very bag) that I lost yesterday. 这就是我昨天丢失的那个包。

考点3. such…as 和such….that的区别(该用定语从句还是

用结果状语从句) such…as “像……样的”,as引导的是定语从句,as作句子成分;such…that“如此……以至于”,that引导的是结果状语从句, that不作句子成分。 判断办法:

如果后面成分完整,用that来引导结果状语从句; 如果后面句子成分不完整,则用as来引导定语从句。 It was so difficult a problem ______ no one worked it out. (成分完整,结果状语从句, 填that)译为: 这道题如此难以至于没有人算得出来。

It was so difficult a problem ______ no one worked out. (成分不完整,定语从句, 填as)译为: 这是一道没有人能算出来的难题。 练习

1. He is such a lazy man ______ nobody wants to work with

______. A. as; him B. that; / C. as; / D. whom; him 2. It wasn’t such a good present ______ he had promised me. A. that B. as C. which D. what 3. We should read such books ______ will make us better and wiser. A. when B. as C. whose D. what 4. This is such a heavy box ______ I can’t move it. A. as B. that C. which D. whose 5. Last term our English teacher set so difficult an examination problem ______ none of us worked out. A. as B. that C. which D. whose

篇三:精品-高中英语语法通霸-7.定语从句语法常考点专项总结归纳讲解与高考真题详细分类练习题及答案

第七章 定语从句

相关概念

主句、从句、关系词

例句:This is the boy who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition.

主句:在含有定语从句的复合句中,除去定语从句后

的部分,是句子的主句。 (例句中,This is the boy.是主句。) 定语从句:相当于形容词,修饰主句中的一个名词或

代词(有时修饰整个主句,相当于主句的一个定语。) (例句中,who won the first prize in the English Speech Competition是定语从句,修饰the boy。) 先行词:先行词就是被定语从句修饰的名词等,它总

是出现在定语从句的前面。 (例句中,the boy是先行词。) 关系词:关系词指用来引导定语从句的词,分为关系

代词和关系副词。(例句中,who是关系代词。) 关系词的三个作用

weather may be better.

不能作关系词)

基础过关

1. 用合适的关系词完成句子。

The man ______ /______ was here yesterday is a painter.

The man ______ /______ /______ /______ I saw is called Smith.

A child ______ parents are dead is called an orphan. I’d like a room ______ window looks out over the sea.

A letter ______ /______ is written in pencil is hard to read.

The letter ______ / ______ /______ I received from him yesterday is very important.

That is the boy ______ / ______ / ______ / ______ you are looking for.

Do you know the reason ______ he was late for the meeting?

This is the school ______ I used to study.

I still remember the day ______ we met for the first time.

2. 用符号标出下列句子的主句、定语从句、先行词和关系词。 主句:

:() 关系词:

The movie that we saw last night is very exciting. Have you bought the book which we talked about?

作定语从句的一个句子成分。

起着连接主句和从句的作用(参看P. 错误!未定义书签。错误!未找到引用源。)。

代指被修饰的先行词。(例句中,who作定语从句的主语,同时起着连接作用,在意思上,指代的是前面的先行词the boy。)

关系代词

指人时可以用who, 也可用that。

Do you know the boy who/that is my desk mate?

The man who/that was killed in the accident is Tom’s uncle.

指物时可以用which, 也可用that。

I like visiting places which/that are not far away.

How do you like the film which/that was shown last Sunday.

whose可以指人也可以指物。

He was a painter whose pictures were not well- known in his life time.

The tree whose leaves are red was planted last year. 关系代词作宾语时可以省略。

I like the meal that/which / ( ) we had last night.

Do you know the boy who/whom/that/( ) we talked about just now?

注:()表示关系代词省略

关系副词

关系副词在从句中只能作状语。when 指时间,where指地点,why指原因,how不能作关系词。如:

I still remember the day which we spent together last week.

He still lives in the house whose windows face south. The boy whose father is a policeman speaks English most fluently in our class.

The girl who you met was John’s sister. There is no reason why we shouldn’t be friends.

They arrived in the early morning when the sky was still dark.

The days were gone when we had to travel on horses. Is this the hospital where you were born?

关系词的选择

选用哪个关系词,关键是看关系词在定语从句中作....含有定语从句的复合句可以分为两部分:主句和从句。关系词是定语从句的一个成分。

选用关系词,要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分,而不是看先行词是什么词性。

He worked in the factory which produces TV sets.

He worked in the factory where his father had worked.

I like the school which is near to my home. I like the school where my sister studies.

在句1和句2中,先行词前都有in, 但关系词有用which也有用where的;

在句3和句4中,先行词都是the school, 但关系词有用which也有用where的。

因此,我们可以看出,对关系词起决定性作用的并不是先行词。

粗斜体部分为根据先行词的意思把关系词还原后的部分。

替换:根据 “对画线部分提问”的规则,1.和3.用where, 2.本该用what, 在定语从句中该用what的要换为which/that。

因此,答案为:1.where;2. that/which;3. where 关系词一般要位于定语从句的句首

【2009江西】The house I grew up ______ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. inC. in that D. in which 答案与分析:A没有关系词,不能连接两句话;C介词后不能用that;D关系词一般不位于句末;而B可以看作是关系代词作宾语、放在句首并且省略了。因此选B。

利用一“找”二“还”三“替换”的方法选择关系词

什么成分

在句1和句3中,关系词在定语从句中都是作主语, Is this the reason ______ he was so careless in his 因此用的都是关系代词which; work?

C. how D. why 在句2和句4中,关系词在定语从句中都是作状语,A. that B. what

因此都是用关系副词where。 The reason ______ he didn’t come was ______ he

was ill. 我们可以看出,用哪个关系词,主要看关系词在定...............A. why; thatB. that; why

语从句中作什么成分。 C. for that; thatD. for which; what .........

He lives in a village ______ is not far from the city.

选用关系词的方法:一“找”二“还”三“替换” A. which B. where C. what D. whose 找:就是找出主句、从句、先行词和关系词。(参看本章第1讲)

还:根据先行词提示的意思,大胆地把定语从句还原(答疑qq 329950885)为完整的一句话。(可以添词)

He lives in the village ______ he was born.

A. which B. where C. what D. whose

In an hour, we travel to places ______ could have taken our ancestors days to reach. A. where B. when C. which D. what

Is this the reason ______ he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that B. what C. how D. why

替换:用关系词替换定语从句中还原后添加的部

分,作主语和宾语用关系

高中英语语法通霸定语从句

代词,作状语用关系副词。(时

间状语用when,地点状语用where, 原因状语用why) In an hour, we travel to places ______ we can relax (同初中时做的“对画线部分提问”相似,该用what的and get refreshed.

A. where B. when 时候用which/that即可)

C. which D. what

例如:

The place ______ interested me most was the

This is the school ______ I once studied. Children’s Palace.

B. where This is the school ______ is the most famous in the A. which

C. what D. in which city.

I am studying at a school ______ my father teaches

English. 找:(略)

还原:根据先行词的提示,这三句话的定语从句还原成完整的一句话后分别为:

The place ______ he had a good time last Sunday was the Children’s Palace. A. which B. where C. what D. in where I’ll never forget the days ______ we studied together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B I’ll never forget the days ______ we spent together. A. that B. / C. when D. A and B

I once studied at the school.

The school is the most famous in the city. My father teaches English at the school.

If we want to have a bright future, we must learn to act in ways ______ do not do harm to other living things. A. in which B. / C. how D. that

【2011陕西】I walked up to the top of the hill with

my friend, ______ we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake. A. which B. where C. who D. that

【2011福建】She has a gift for creating an atmos-

A. when B. the one where phere for her students ______ allows them to C. that D. in which communicate freely with each other.

A. which B. where C. what D. who Is this factory ______ color TV sets are produced?

A. which B. the one where 【2012江西】By 16:30, ______ was almost closing C. that D. in which time, nearly all the paintings had been sold.This is the factory ______ produces color TV sets. A. where B. the one where C. that D. in which 【2010天津】—Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut?

—You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that

A. which B. when

C. what

D. that

【2013山东】Finally he reached a lonely island ______ was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom

只能用that不能用which的情况

VIII. All the apples ______ fell down were eaten by

the pigs. A. that B. thoseC. which D. what IX. You can take any seat ______ is free. A. that B. /C. which D. it 先行词被最高级、序数词以及 the first, the last, the very, the only, the same修饰时

被这类词修饰时,关系代词常用that,不用which。

X. The most important thing ______ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; thatB. that; whichC. which; which D. that; that XI. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing. A. that B. it C. which D. who XII. The TV play I watched last night is the best one ______ I have watched this year. A. which B. what C. whose D. that XIII. This is the very film ______ I’ve long wished to see. A. which B. thatC. who D. whom XIV. I like the second football match ______ was held last week. A. which B. whoC. that D. / XV. This is the last time ______ I shall come here to help you. A. that B. whichC. when D. what

先行词是anything, something, nothing,

everything等不定代词时

关系代词一般只用that,不用which。

I. He never reads anything ______ is not worth reading. A. which B. as C. who D. that II. Is there anything ______ to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belongD. which belongs

III. 【2010全国2】I refuse to accept the blame for something ______ was someone else’s fault.A. who B. that C. as D. what先行词是all, much,little, none或先行词被all, much, little, no, any修饰时

关系词只能用that, 不能用which。

All the people that are present burst into tears. IV. These people once had fame and fortune; now ______ is left to them is utter poverty. A. all that B. all what C. all whichD. that all V. There is not much ______ can be done. A. that B. whichC. what D. how

VI. 【2010浙江】______ that’s important is that you are doing your best and moving in the right direction. A. One B. All C. EverythingD. Anything VII. There is no difficulty ______ can’t be overcome in the world. A. that B. whichC. who D. what

XVI. It’s the third time ______ late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词用that

XVII. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist ______ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that XVIII. Both the girl and her dog ______ were crossing the street were hit by a coming car. A. which B. who C. they D. that XIX. All the passengers and suitcases ______ were still waiting on the broken down bus had to be transferred to another long distance bus. A. they B. who C. which D. that

XX. He talked a lot about things and persons ______ they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 注意:关系副词不受这些规则的影响

只是(答疑qq 329950885)在选用关系代词时才使用这些规则。如:

XXI. 【2010福建】Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose XXII. This is the same house ______ her grandfather was born.

A. that B. where C. which D. whose

其他有关关系词选择的规则

第8章 【2010全国1】As a child, Jack studied in a

village school, ______ is named after his

grandfather.

A. which B. where C. what D. that

关系代词直接放在介词后面时,要用which,不用

that;要用whom,不用who

第1章 【2011湖南】Julie was good at German, French

and Russian , all of ______ she spoke fluently.

A. who B. whom C. which D. that

第9章 【2012全国Ⅱ】That evening, ______ I will tell

you more about later, I ended up working very

late.

A. that B. which C. what D. when

当先行词前面有which,who等疑问代词时,为避免重复,用关系代词that

同理,当先行词是that, those时,常用关系代词which或who。如:

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

第2章 【2008湖南】The growing speed of a plant is

influenced by a number of factors, ______ are beyond our control. A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that

第3章 This is the museum ______ we saw an

exhibition the other day. A. that B. which C. where that

D.

in

第4章 【2009全国I】She brought with her three

friends, none of ______ I had ever met before.A. them B. who C. whom D. these

第5章 【2010浙江】The settlement is home to nearly

1,000 people, many of ______ left their village homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those

第10章 Who is the person ______ is standing at the

gate of Beijing Tourism Tower?

A. who B. that C. which whom

thing?

A. which B. who

D.

第11章 Who ______ has common sense will do such a

C. whom

D. that

第6章 【2012上海】Have you sent thank-you notes to

the relatives from ______ you received gifts?

A. which B. them C. that D. whom

引导非限制性定语从句时,要用which, who, whom, 不用that,也不能省略

第12章 Those ______ not only from books but also

through practice will succeed. A. learn B. who C. that learns D. who learn

关系代词在从句中作表语或there be结构中的实意主语时, that可指人或物,且通常省略 (概括为:在从句中位于be后。此条仅作了解)

第7章 【2008浙江】Yesterday she sold her car,

______ she bought a month ago. A. whom B. where C. that which

D.