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研究生入学考试英语一真题真题答案(完整版)

时间:2016-04-12 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:2015年考研英语一真题及答案(完整版)

2015年考研英语一真题及答案(完整版)

Section 1 Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which4 pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5.While 1% may seem 6, it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."

The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many

mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends

with 14!One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all

subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.

Section II Reading Comprehension

1、What

2、Concluded

3、On

4、Compared

5、Samples

6、Insignificant

7、Know

8、Resemble

9、Also

10、Perhaps

11、To

12、Drive

13、Ratherthan

14、Benefits

15、Faster

16、understand

17、Contributory

18、Tendency

19、Ethnic

20、see

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing

[A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)TEXT 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted"kings don't abdicate, they die in their sleep." But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republicans left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above "mere" polities and "embody" a spirit of national unity.It is this apparent transcendence of polities that explains monarchy's

continuing popularity as heads of state. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave

today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warming of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe's monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy's reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service-as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy's worst enemies.

21. According to the first two paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A]eased his relationship with his rivals.

[B]used to enjoy high public support.

[C]was unpopular among European royals.

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment.

22. Monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A]to give voters more public figures to look up to.

[B]to achieve a balance between tradition and reality.

[C]owing to their undoubted and respectable status.

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment.

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

[B] Aristocrats' excessive reliance on inherited wealth.

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.

[D] The nobility's adherence to their privileges.

24. The British royals "have most to fear" because Charles

[A]takes a tough line on political issues.

[B]fails to change his lifestyle as advised.

[C]takes republicans as his potential allies.

[D]fails to adapt himself to his future role.

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A]Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B]Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

[D]Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

21.Dended his reign in embarrassment.

22. C owing to the undoubted and respectable status

篇二:2015考研英语真题:英语一真题完整版+答案

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as “related”as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

5. [A] tests [B] s [C]samples [D] examples

6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.”But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the

republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere”politics and “embody”a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains

monarchs’continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today –embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that

monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A] used turn enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] cased his relationship with his rivals

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment

22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’excessive reliance on inherited wealth

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

[D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

24. The British royals “have most to fear”because Charles

[A] takes a rough line on political issues

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

TEXT 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

篇三:2015年考研英语一真题及答案完整版

2015年考研英语一真题及答案完整版

Section 1 Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which4 pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5.While 1% may seem 6, it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14!One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.

Section II Reading Comprehension?

1、What

2、Concluded

3、On

4、Compared

5、Samples

6、Insignificant

7、Know

8、Resemble

9、Also

10、Perhaps

11、To

12、Drive

13、Ratherthan

14、Benefits

15、Faster

16、understand

17、Contributory

18、Tendency

19、Ethnic

20、see

Part A?

Directions:?

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)?

TEXT 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted"kings don't abdicate, they die in their sleep." But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republicans left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above "mere" polities and "embody" a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of polities that explains monarchy's continuing popularity as heads of state. And so, the Middle East

expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warming of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe's monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy's reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service-as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy's worst enemies.

21. According to the first two paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A]eased his relationship with his rivals.

[B]used to enjoy high public support.

[C]was unpopular among European royals.

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment.

22. Monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A]to give voters more public figures to look up to.

[B]to achieve a balance between tradition and reality.

[C]owing to their undoubted and respectable status.

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment.

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

[B] Aristocrats' excessive reliance on inherited wealth.

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.

[D] The nobility's adherence to their privileges.

24. The British royals "have most to fear" because Charles

[A]takes a tough line on political issues.

[B]fails to change his lifestyle as advised.

[C]takes republicans as his potential allies.

[D]fails to adapt himself to his future role.

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A]Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B]Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

[D]Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

第21-25题答案

21.Dended his reign in embarrassment.

22. C owing to the undoubted and respectable status

23. A the role of the nobility in modern democracy

24. B fails to change his lifestyle as advised.

25. D Carlos, a lesson for all Monarchies

TEXT 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may

search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California's advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California's lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital

information is similar to say, going through a suspect's purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one's smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee's reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of "cloud computing." meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California's argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution's protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] search for suspects' mobile phones without a warrant.

[B] check suspects' phone contents without being authorized.

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author's attitude toward California's argument is one of

[A] tolerance.

[B] indifference.

[C] disapproval.

[D] cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one's phone content is comparable to

[A] getting into one's residence.

[B] handing one's historical records.

[C] scanning one's correspondences.

[D] going through one's wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

[D] citizens' privacy is not effective protected.

30.Orin Kerr's comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

(C)California's argument violates principles of the Constitution.

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

第26-30题答案

26. Bcheck suspect's phone contents without being authorized.

27.Cdisapproval

28.A getting into one's residence

29. D citizens' privacy is not effectively protected

30.B new technology requires reinterpretation of the constitution

Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNott announced today. The Follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that Mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the Published research findings."Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,"writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the

American Statistical Association, the Journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the Journal's editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said,"The creation of the'statistics board'was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science's overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish."

Giovanni Parmigiani,a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to "play primarily on advisory role." He agreed to join because he "found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science."

John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is "a most welcome step forward"and "long

overdue,""Most journals are weak in statistical review,and this damages the quality of what they publish. I think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review,"he says. But he noted that biomedical journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.

Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research,

according to David Vaux,a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012,but journals should also take a tougher line,"engaging reviewers who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process."Vaux says that Science's idea to pass some papers to statisticians "has some merit,but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify'the papers that need scrutiny'in the first place."

31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that

[A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process.

[B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks.

[C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.

[D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects.

32. The phrase "flagged up "(Para.2)is the closest in meaning to

[A]found.

[B]revised.

[C]marked

[D]stored

33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

[A]pose a threat to all its peers

[B]meet with strong opposition

[C]increase Science's circulation.

[D]set an example for other journals

34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

A. adds to researchers' worklosd.

B. diminishes the role of reviewers.

C. has room for further improvement.

D. is to fail in the foreseeable future.

35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers

B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors' Desks

D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

第31-35题答案

31.B journals are strengthening their statistical checks

32.B marked

33.D set an example for other journals

34.C has room for further improvement

35.A science joins Push to screen statistics in papers

Text4

Two years ago. Rupert Murdoch's daughter, spoke at the "unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the mechanism"in society should be profit and the market we the people who create the society we want, not profit."

Driving her point home, she continued"It's increasingly absence of purpose,of a moral language with in government, could become one of the most dangerous goals for capitalism and freedom." This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies, such as International, she thought, making it more likely that it would fore had with widespread illegal telephone hacking.

As the hacking trial concludes-finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding the predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge-the wide dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds.

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.

In today's world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.

篇四:2015年考研英语一真题答案(完整版)

2015年考研英语一真题答案(完整版)

Section 1 Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as related as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 .While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin.

The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than nal kinship of being friends with 14 !One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human

研究生入学考试英语一真题真题答案(完整版)

evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

The findings do not simply corroborate peoples 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects. Section II Reading Comprehension

1、What

2、Concluded

3、On

4、Compared

5、Samples

6、Insignificant

7、Know

8、Resemble

9、Also

10、Perhaps

11、To

12、Drive

13、Ratherthan

14、Benefits

15、Faster

16、understand

17、Contributory

18、Tendency

19、Ethnic

20、see

Part A

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

原标题:2015年考研英语一真题答案(完整版)

TEXT 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insistedkings dont abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the

republicans left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for

all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above mere polities and embody a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of polities that explains monarchys continuing popularity as heads of state. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warming of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old

aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europes monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchys reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service-as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchys worst enemies.

21. According to the first two graphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A]eased his relationship with his rivals.

[B]used to enjoy high public support.

[C]was unpopular among European royals.

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment.

22. Monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A]to give voters more public figures to look up to.

[B]to achieve a balance between tradition and reality.

[C]owing to their undoubted and respectable status.

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment.

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to graph 4?

[A] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

篇五:2015考研英语真题:英语一真题完整版+答案

2015年考研英语真题:真题完整版+答案

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as “related”as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!

One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could

help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the

subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

5. [A] tests [B] s [C]samples [D] examples

6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.”But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere”politics and “embody”a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains

monarchs’continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today –embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that

monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A] used turn enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] cased his relationship with his rivals

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment

22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’excessive reliance on inherited wealth

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

[D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

24. The British royals “have most to fear”because Charles

[A] takes a rough line on political issues

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

TEXT 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal