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2011年硕士研究生入学考试英语二

时间:2016-06-10 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试(英语二)试题与参考答案

2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试(英语二)试题

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has 1 across the Web.

Can privacy be preserved 2bringing safety and security to a world that seems increasingly 3?

Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber-czar, offered the federal government a 4 to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech 5 of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo ID card, all rolled 6 one. The system might use a smart identity card, or a digital credential 7 to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services.

The idea is to 8 a federation of private online identity systems. User could 9 which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s license10 by the government.

Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to11 just once but use many different services.

“walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of a13 community.

Mr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations can complete online transactions with 14 ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure 15 which the transaction runs”.

Still, the administration’s plan has 16 privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would 17 be a compulsory Internet “drive’s license” mentality.

The plan has also been greeted with 18 by some computer security experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet 19 .They argue that all Internet users should be 20 to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to

Section IIReading Comprehension

Part A Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points)

Text 1

Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass uemarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.

Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.

The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up.” Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms.

But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus.

21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for. [A]gaining excessive profits

[B]failing to fulfill her duty [C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times

22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be.

[A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers

23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director’s surprise departure, the firm is likely to .

[A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits

24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors. [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm

25. The author’s attitude toward the role of outside directors is . [A]permissive [B]positive

[C]scornful [D]critical Text 2

Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America’s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date.

In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same.

It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further.

Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable.

The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.

篇二:2011年硕士研究生入学考试 英语二 真题及参考答案

2011年硕士研究生入学考试 英语二 真题及参考答案

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But Can privacy be bringing safety and security to a world that seems ?

Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation’s cyber to make the Web a safer place-a “voluntary trusted identity” system that would be the high-tech one. The system might use users at a range of online services.

The idea is federation of private online identity systems. User system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate

those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver’s licenseby the government.

Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to just once but use many different services.

.the approach would create a “walled garden” n cyberspace, with safe “neighborhoods” and bright “streetlights” to establish a sense of aMr. Schmidt described it as a “voluntary ecosystem” in which “individuals and organizations ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure

Still, the administration’s plan hasprivacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative push toward what would

The plan has also been greeted with by some computer security experts, who worry that the “voluntary ecosystem” envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

A.swept A.for A.careless A.reason

A.information A.by A.linked A.dismiss A.recall

B.skipped B.within B.lawless B.reminder B.interference B.into B.directed B.discover B.suggest

C.walked C.while C.pointless C.compromise C.entertainment C.from C.chained C.create C.select

D.ridden D.though D.helpless D.proposal D.equivalent D.over

D.compared D.improve D.realize

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. A.relcased A.carry on A.In vain A.trusted A.caution A.on A.divided A.frequestly A.skepticism A.manageable A.invited B.issued B.linger on B.In effect B.modernized B.delight B.after

B.disappointed B.incidentally B.relerance B.defendable B.appointed

C.distributed C.set in C.In return c.thriving C.confidence C.beyond C.protected C.occasionally C.indifference C.vulnerable C.allowed D.delivered D.log in D.In contrast D.competing D.patience D.across D.united D.eventually D.enthusiasm D.invisible D.forced

Section IIReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points)

Text 1

Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs’s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman’s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass uemarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.

Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm’s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive’s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.

The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those “surprise” disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they “trade up.” Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms.

But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus. 21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for . [A]gaining excessive profits [B]failing to fulfill her duty

[C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times

22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be . [A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters [D]independent advisers

23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director’s surprise

. [A]become more stable

[B]report increased earnings

[C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits

24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors . [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm

25. The author’s attitude toward the role of outside directors is . [A]permissive [B]positive [C]scornful [D]critical

Text 2

Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America’s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date.

In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged

off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same.

It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further.

Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable.

The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.

26. By saying “Newspapers like … their own doom” (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author indicates that

.

[A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies

[C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation

. [A]readers threatened to pay less

[B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs

[C]journalists reported little about these areas

[D]subscribers complained about slimmer products

28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more stable

[A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising [D]are less affected by readership

29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper business? [A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers. [B]Completeness is to blame for the failure of newspaper.

[C]Foreign bureaus play a crucial role in the newspaper business. [D]Readers have lost their interest in car and film reviews.

. [A]American Newspapers: Struggling for Survival [B]American Newspapers: Gone with the Wind [C]American Newspapers: A Thriving Business [D]American Newspapers: A Hopeless Story

Text 3

We tend to think of the decades immediately following World War II as a time of prosperity and growth, with soldiers returning home by the millions, going off to college on the G. I. Bill and lining up at the marriage bureaus.

But when it came to their houses, it was a time of common sense and a belief that less could truly be more. During the Depression and the war, Americans had learned to live with less, and that restraint, in combination with the postwar confidence in the future, made small, efficient housing positively stylish.

Economic condition was only a stimulus for the trend toward efficient living. The phrase “less is more” was actually first popularized by a German, the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who like other people associated with the Bauhaus, a school of design, emigrated to the United States before World War II

and took up posts at American architecture schools. These designers came to exert enormous influence on the course of American architecture, but none more so that Mies.

Mies’s signature phrase means that less decoration, properly organized, has more impact that a lot. Elegance, he believed, did not derive from abundance. Like other modern architects, he employed metal, glass and laminated wood-materials that we take for granted today buy that in the 1940s symbolized the future. Mies’s sophisticated presentation masked the fact that the spaces he designed were small and efficient, rather than big and often empty.

The apartments in the elegant towers Mies built on Chicago’s Lake Shore Drive, for example, were smaller-two-bedroom units under 1,000 square feet-than those in their older neighbors along the city’s Gold Coast. But they were popular because of their airy glass walls, the views they afforded and the elegance of the buildings’ details and proportions, the architectural equivalent of the abstract art so popular at the time.

The trend toward “less” was not entirely foreign. In the 1930s Frank Lloyd Wright started building more modest and efficient houses-usually around 1,200 square feet-than the spreading two-story ones he had designed in the 1890s and the early 20th century.

The “Case Study Houses” commissioned from talented modern architects by California Arts & Architecture magazine between 1945 and 1962 were yet another homegrown influence on the “less is more” trend. Aesthetic effect came from the landscape, new materials and forthright detailing. In his Case Study House, Ralph everyday life – few American families acquired helicopters, though most eventually got clothes dryers – but his belief that self-sufficiency was both desirable and inevitable was widely shared.

31. The postwar American housing style largely reflected the Americans’ . [A]prosperity and growth

[B]efficiency and practicality

篇三:2011年及2012年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语二真题及参考答案1

2011Section I Use of English Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The Internet affords anonymity to its users, a blessing to privacy and freedom of speech. But that very anonymity is also behind the explosion of cyber-crime that has across the Web.

Can privacy be bringing safety and security to a world that ?

Last month, Howard Schmidt, the nation‘s cyber-czar, offered the federal government make the Web a safer place-a ―voluntary trusted identity‖ system that would be the of a physical key, a fingerprint and a photo might use a smart identity card, or a digital to a specific computer .and would authenticate users at a range of online services.

which system to join, and only registered users whose identities have been authenticated could navigate those systems. The approach contrasts with one that would require an Internet driver‘s license Google and Microsoft are among companies that already have these“single sign-on” systems that make it possible for users to just once but use many different services.

.the approach would create a ―walled garden‖ n cyberspace, with safe ―neighborhoods‖ and bright ―streetlights‖ to establish a sense of community.

Mr. Schmidt described it as a ―voluntary ecosystem‖ in which ―individuals and organizations can complete online transactions ,trusting the identities of each other and the identities of the infrastructure which the transaction runs‖.

Still, the administration‘s plan privacy rights activists. Some applaud the approach; others are concerned. It seems clear that such a scheme is an initiative be a compulsory Internet ―drive‘s license‖ mentality.

The plan has also been greeted with by some computer security experts, who worry that the ―voluntary ecosystem‖ envisioned by Mr. Schmidt would still leave much of the Internet .They argue that all Internet users should

to register and identify themselves, in the same way that drivers must be licensed to drive on public roads. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

A.swept A.for A.careless A.reason A.information A.by A.linked A.dismiss A.recall

B.skipped B.within B.lawless B.reminder B.interference B.into B.directed B.discover B.suggest B.issued B.linger on B.In effect B.modernized B.delight B.after B.disappointed B.incidentally B.relerance B.defendable B.appointed

C.walked C.while C.pointless C.compromise C.entertainment C.from C.chained C.create C.select C.distributed C.set in C.In return c.thriving C.confidence C.beyond C.protected C.occasionally C.indifference C.vulnerable C.allowed

D.ridden D.though D.helpless D.proposal D.equivalent D.over D.compared D.improve D.realize D.delivered D.log in D.In contrast D.competing D.patience D.across D.united D.eventually D.enthusiasm D.invisible D.forced

10. A.relcased 11. A.carry on 12. A.In vain 13. A.trusted 14. A.caution 15. A.on 16. A.divided 17. A.frequestly 18. A.skepticism 19. A.manageable 20. A.invited

Section IIReading Comprehension Part A Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40points) Text 1

Ruth Simmons joined Goldman Sachs‘s board as an outside director in January 2000: a year later she became president of Brown University. For the rest of the decade she apparently managed both roles without attracting much eroticism. But by the end of 2009 Ms. Simmons was under fire for having sat on Goldman‘s compensation committee; how could she have let those enormous bonus payouts pass

uemarked? By February the next year Ms. Simmons had left the board. The position was just taking up too much time, she said.

Outside directors are supposed to serve as helpful, yet less biased, advisers on a firm‘s board. Having made their wealth and their reputations elsewhere, they presumably have enough independence to disagree with the chief executive‘s proposals. If the sky, and the share price is falling, outside directors should be able to give advice based on having weathered their own crises.

The researchers from Ohio University used a database hat covered more than 10,000 firms and more than 64,000 different directors between 1989 and 2004. Then they simply checked which directors stayed from one proxy statement to the next. The most likely reason for departing a board was age, so the researchers concentrated on those ―surprise‖ disappearances by directors under the age of 70. They fount that after a surprise departure, the probability that the company will subsequently have to restate earnings increased by nearly 20%. The likelihood of being named in a federal class-action lawsuit also increases, and the stock is likely to perform worse. The effect tended to be larger for larger firms. Although a correlation between them leaving and subsequent bad performance at the firm is suggestive, it does not mean that such directors are always jumping off a sinking ship. Often they ―trade up.‖ Leaving riskier, smaller firms for larger and more stable firms.

But the researchers believe that outside directors have an easier time of avoiding a blow to their reputations if they leave a firm before bad news breaks, even if a review of history shows they were on the board at the time any wrongdoing occurred. Firms who want to keep their outside directors through tough times may have to create incentives. Otherwise outside directors will follow the example of Ms. Simmons, once again very popular on campus.

21. According to Paragraph 1, Ms. Simmons was criticized for . [A]gaining excessive profits [B]failing to fulfill her duty [C]refusing to make compromises [D]leaving the board in tough times

22. We learn from Paragraph 2 that outside directors are supposed to be . [A]generous investors [B]unbiased executives [C]share price forecasters

[D]independent advisers

23. According to the researchers from Ohio University after an outside director‘s

. [A]become more stable [B]report increased earnings [C]do less well in the stock market [D]perform worse in lawsuits

24. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that outside directors . [A]may stay for the attractive offers from the firm [B]have often had records of wrongdoings in the firm [C]are accustomed to stress-free work in the firm [D]will decline incentives from the firm

25. The author‘s attitude toward the role of outside directors is . [A]permissive [B]positive [C]scornful [D]critical

Text 2

Whatever happened to the death of newspaper? A year ago the end seemed near. The recession threatened to remove the advertising and readers that had not already fled to the internet. Newspapers like the San Francisco Chronicle were chronicling their own doom. America‘s Federal Trade commission launched a round of talks about how to save newspapers. Should they become charitable corporations? Should the state subsidize them ? It will hold another meeting soon. But the discussions now seem out of date.

In much of the world there is the sign of crisis. German and Brazilian papers have shrugged off the recession. Even American newspapers, which inhabit the most troubled come of the global industry, have not only survived but often returned to profit. Not the 20% profit margins that were routine a few years ago, but profit all the same.

It has not been much fun. Many papers stayed afloat by pushing journalists overboard. The American Society of News Editors reckons that 13,500 newsroom jobs have gone since 2007. Readers are paying more for slimmer products. Some

papers even had the nerve to refuse delivery to distant suburbs. Yet these desperate measures have proved the right ones and, sadly for many journalists, they can be pushed further.

Newspapers are becoming more balanced businesses, with a healthier mix of revenues from readers and advertisers. American papers have long been highly unusual in their reliance on ads. Fully 87% of their revenues came from advertising in 2008, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). In Japan the proportion is 35%. Not surprisingly, Japanese newspapers are much more stable.

The whirlwind that swept through newsrooms harmed everybody, but much of the damage has been concentrated in areas where newspaper are least distinctive. Car and film reviewers have gone. So have science and general business reporters. Foreign bureaus have been savagely cut off. Newspapers are less complete as a result. But completeness is no longer a virtue in the newspaper business.

26. By saying ―Newspapers like … their own doom‖ (Lines 3-4, Para. 1), the author

. [A]neglected the sign of crisis [B]failed to get state subsidies [C]were not charitable corporations [D]were in a desperate situation

[A]readers threatened to pay less [B]newspapers wanted to reduce costs [C]journalists reported little about these areas [D]subscribers complained about slimmer products

28. Compared with their American counterparts, Japanese newspapers are much more

[A]have more sources of revenue [B]have more balanced newsrooms [C]are less dependent on advertising [D]are less affected by readership

29. What can be inferred from the last paragraph about the current newspaper

business?

[A]Distinctiveness is an essential feature of newspapers.

篇四:2011年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语(二)试题

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篇五:在职硕士:2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题

中公教育·给人改变未来的力量

在职硕士:2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试

北京人事考试网:

在职硕士:

考生注意事项

1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则。

2. 答题前,考生应将答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息填写清楚,并与准考证上的一致。

3. 答案必须按要求填涂或写在指定的答题卡上。

词汇知识、综合填空、阅读理解的答案填涂在答题卡(一)上,英译汉的答案和作文的写在答题卡(二)上。

填涂部分应该按照答题卡上的要求用2B铅笔完成。如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。书写部分(英译汉的答案和作文)必须用蓝(黑)色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔在答题卡上作答。

4. 答题卡严禁折叠。考试结束后,将答题卡(一)和答题卡(二)一起放入原试卷袋中, 试卷交给监考人员。

2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题

Section I Use of English

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on Answer Sheet 1 (10 points)

Individuals and businesses have legal protection for intellectual property they create and own. Intellectual property _1_from creative thinking and may include products, _2_, processes, and ideas. Intellectual property is protected _3_

misappropriation (盗用) Misappropriation is taking the intellectual property of others without _4_ compensation and using it for monetary gain.

Legal protection is provided for the _5_ of intellectual property. The three common types of legal protection are patents, copyrights, and trademarks.

Patents provide exclusive use of inventions. If the U.S. Patent Office _6_ a patent, it is confirming that the intellectual property is _7_. The patent prevents others from making, using, or selling the invention without the owner’s _8_ for a period of 20 years.

Copyright are similar to patents _9_ that they are applied to artistic works.

A copyright protects the creator of an _10_ artistic or intellectual work, such as

中公教育·给人改变未来的力量

a song or a novel. A copyright gives the owner exclusive rights to copy, _11_, display, or perform the work. The copyright prevents others from using and selling the work. The _12_ of a copyright is typically the lifetime of the author _13_ an additional 70 years.

Trademarks are words, names, or symbols that identify the manufacturer of a product and _14_ it from similar goods of others. A servicemark is similar to a trademark _15_ is used to identify service. A trademark prevents others from using the _16_ or a similar word, name, or symbol to take advantage of the recognition an(转 自 于:wWW.Hn1C.cOM 唯才教育 网:2011年硕士研究生入学考试英语)d _17_ of the brand or to create confusion in the marketplace. _18_ registration, a trademark is usually granted for a period of ten years. It can be _19_ for additional ten-year periods indefinitely as _20_ as the mark’s use continues.

1. A. retrieves B. deviates C. results D. departs

2. A. services B. reserves C. assumptions D. motions

3. A. for B. with C. by D. from

4. A. sound B. partial C. due D. random

5. A. users B. owners C. masters D. executives

6. A. affords B. affiliates C. funds D. grants

7. A. solemn B. sober C. unique D. universal

8. A. perspective B. permission C. conformity D. consensus

9. A. except B. besides C. beyond D. despite

10. A. absolute B. alternative C. original D. orthodox

11. A. presume B. stimulate C. nominate D. distribute

12. A. range B. length C. scale D. extent

13. A. plus B. versus C. via D. until

14. A. distract B. differ C. distinguish D. disconnect

15. A. or B. but C. so D. whereas

16. A. identical B. analogical C. literal D. parallel

17. A. ambiguity B. utility C. popularity D. proximity

18. A. From B. Over C. Before D. Upon

19. A. recurred B. renewed C. recalled D. recovered

20. A. long B. soon C. far D. well

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

中公教育·给人改变未来的力量

Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1 (40 points)

Text 1

Within a large concrete room, cut out of a mountain on a freezing-told island just 1,000 kilometers from the North Pole, could lie the future of humanity.

The room is a vault (地下库) designed to hold around 2 million seeds,

representing all known varieties of the world’s crops. It is being built to safeguard the world’s food supply against nuclear war, climate change, terrorism, rising sea levels, earthquakes and the collapse of electricity supplies. “If the worst came to the worst, this would allow the world to reconstruct agriculture on this planet.” says Cary Fowler, director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust, an independent international organization promoting the project.

The Norwegian (挪威的) government is planning to create the seed bank next year at the request of crop scientists. The $3 million vault will be built deep inside a sandstone mountain on the Norwegian Arctic island of Spitsbergen. The vault will have metre-thick walls of reinforced concrete and will be protected behind two airlocks and high-security doors.

The vault’s seed collection will represent the products of some 10,000 years of plant breeding by the world’s famers. Though most are no longer widely planted, the varieties contain vital genetic properties still regularly used in plant breeding.

To survive, the seeds need freezing temperatures. Operators plan to replace the air inside the

vault each winter, when temperatures in Spitsbergen are around -18℃. But even if some disaster meant that the vault was abandoned, the permanently frozen soil would keep the seeds alive. And even accelerated global warming would take many decades to penetrate the mountain vault.

“This will be the world’s most secure gene bank,” says Fowler. “But its seeds will only be used when all other samples have gone for some reason.”

The project comes at a time when there is growing concern about the safety of existing seed banks around the world. Many have been criticized for poor security, ageing refrigeration (冷藏) systems and vulnerable electricity supplies.

中公教育·给人改变未来的力量

The scheme won UN approval at a meeting of the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome in October 2005. A feasibility study said the facility “would essentially be built to last forever”.

21. The Norwegian vault is important in that _________________.

A. the seeds in it represent the rarest varieties of world’s crops.

B. the seeds in it could revive agriculture if the worst thing should happen

C. it is built deep in a mountain on a freezing-cold Arctic island

D. it is strong enough against all disasters caused by man and nature

22. The seed bank project was proposed by __________.

A. the Norwegian government B. Norwegian farmers

C. Spitsbergen residents D. agricultural scientists

23. The seeds in the vault will be stored ____________________.

A. as samples of world crop varieties

B. as products of world plant breeding

C. for their valuable genetic properties

D. for their resistance to plant diseases

24. For the seed bank project to be successful, the most important factor is probably________.

A. constructing tight airlocks B. maintaining high security

C. keeping freezing temperatures D. storing large quantities of seeds

25. Which of the following statements is true?

A. The Norwegian vault models after existing seed banks

B. The Spitsbergen seed bank is expected to last 10,000 years

C. The existing seed banks have potential problems

D. The UN financed the Spitsbergen seed bank

Text 2

Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods.

中公教育·给人改变未来的力量

In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators, the cotton presses, the warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation’s farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them. In manufacturing, the transformation was marked by the emergence of a “new factory system” in which plants became larger, more complex, and more systematically organized and managed. And in distribution, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the jobber, the wholesaler, and the mass retailer. These changes radically altered the nature of work during the half century between 1870 and 1920.

To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the sweatshops in city tenements, where groups of men and women in household settings manufactured clothing or cigars on a piecework basis. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building. But as the number of wage earners in manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did the size of the average plant. (The Baldwin Works had 600 employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By 1920, at least in the northeastern United States where most of the nation’s manufacturing wage earners were concentrated,

three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than 100 employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than 1,000 employees.

26. What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?

A. New technological developments had little effect on farmers.

B. The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.

C. Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.

D. Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.

27. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the “new factory system?”

A. A change in the organization of factories.

B. A growth in the complexity of factories.

C. An increase in the size of factories.

D. An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.