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中科院博士入学考试英语真题及答案

时间:2016-10-17 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:2011年3月中科院考博英语真题及答案详解

GRADUATE UNIVERSITY, CHINESE ACADEMY

OF SCIENCES ENGLISH ENTRANCE

EXAMINATION

FOR

DOCTORAL CANDIDATES

March 2011

PAPER ONE

PART ⅠVOCABULARY(15 minutes, 10points, 0. 5point each)

Directions: Choose the word or expression below each sentence that best completes the statement, and mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square bracket on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

1. My father was a nuclear engineer, a very academically _________ Man with multiple degrees from prestigious institutions.

A. promotedB. activatedC. oriented D. functioned

2. Public _________ for the usually low-budget, high-quality films has enabled the independent film industry to grow and thrive.

A. appreciationB. recognition C. gratitude D. tolerance

3. Dirty Jobs on the Discovery Channel, an unlikely television program, has become a surprising success with a _________ fan base.

A. contributedB. devotedC. revered D. scared

4. Pop culture doesn't _________ to strict rules; it enjoys being jazzy, unpredictable, chaotic.

A. adhereB. lendC. exposeD. commit

5. Intellectual property is a kind of _________ monopoly, which should be used properly or else would disrupt healthy competition order.

A. legible B. legendaryC. lenientD. legitimate

6. I am thankful to the company for giving me such a chance, and I earnestly hope that I will _________ everyone’s expectations.

A. boil down toB. look forward toC. live up to D. catch on to

7. The image of an unfortunate resident having to climb 20 flights of stairs because the lift is _________ is now a common one.

A. out of the wayB. on orderC. out of orderD. in no way

8. My eyes had become _________ to the now semi-darkness, so I could pick out shapes about seventy-five yards away.

A. inclined B. accustomedC. vulnerableD. sensitive

9. Despite what I’d been told about the local people’s attitude to strangers, _________ did I encounter any rudeness.

A. at no time B. in no time C. at any time D. at some time

10. In times of severe _________ companies are often forced to make massive job cuts in order to survive.

A. retreat B, retrospectC. reductionD. recession

11. Sport was integral to the national and local press, TV and, to a diminishing _________ , to radio.

A. extentB. scopeC. scaleD. range

12. Unless your handwriting is _________ , or the form specifically asks for typewriting, the form should be neatly handwritten.

A. illegitimate B, illegal C. illegibleD. illiterate

13. The profession fell into , with some physicists sticking to existing theories, while others came up with the big-bang theory.

A. harmony B. turmoilC. distortionD. accord

14. With the purchasing power of many middle-class households _________ behind the cost of living, there was an urgent demand for credit.

A. leaving B. levering C. lacking D. lagging

15. Frank stormed into the room and _________ the door, but it wasn’t that easy to close the door on what Jack had said.

A. slashedB. slammedC. slippedD. slapped

16. When I was having dinner with you and Edward at his apartment, I sensed a certain _________ between the two of you.

A. intimacy B. proximity C. discrepancyD. diversity

17. I decided to _________ between Ralph and his brother, who were arguing endlessly.

A. interfere B. intervene C. interruptD. interact

18. “I mean Gildas and Ludens are both wise, reasonable and tactful; but naturally they’re _________ , they want to know what’s happening, and make judgments on it all. ”

A. indifferent B. innocentC. inquisitive D. instinctive

19. In Africa HIV and AIDS continue to _________ the population; nearly 60 percent of those infected are women.

A. alleviate B. boostC. captureD. ravage

20. By the end of the Spring and Autumn Period slave society was _________ disintegration.

A. on the ground of B. on the top of

C. in the light of D. on the verge of

PART Ⅱ CLOZE TEST(15 minutes, 15 points)

Directions: For each blank in the following passage, choose the best answer from the four choices given below. Mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square bracket on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

Tomorrow Japan and South Korea will celebrate White Day, an annual event when men are expected to buy a gift for the adored women in their lives. It is a relatively new that was commercially created as payback for Valentine’s Day. That’s in both countries, 14 February is all about the man.

On Valentine’s Day, women are expected to buy all the important male23in their lives a token gift; not just their partners, their bosses or older relatives too.

This seems25enough. Surely it’s reasonable for men to be indulged on one day of the the number of times they’re expected to produce bouquets of flowers andtheir woman with perfume or pearls.

But the idea of a woman28a man didn’t sit easily with people. In 1978, the National

Confectionery Industry Association(糖果业协会) an idea to solve this problem. They started to market white chocolate that men could give to women on 14 March, as for the male-oriented Valentine’s Day.

It started with a handful of sweet-makers’ producing candy31a simple gift idea. The day the public imagination, and is now a nationally date in the diary-and one where men are to whip out their credit cards. In fact, men are now expected to give gifts worth the value of those they received. What a

中科院博士入学考试英语真题及答案

complication: not only do men have to remember who bought them what, they have to estimate the value and multiply it by three.

21. A. copy B. conceptC. choice D. belief

22. A. becauseB. as C. so D. why

23. A. clients B. friendsC. figures D. colleagues

24. A. but B. and C. instead ofD. rather than

25. A. odd B. good C. fairD. rare

26. A. given B. if C. but D. though

27. A. attract B. frustrate C. surpriseD. touch

28. A. supporting B. spoilingC. comfortingD. fooling

29. A. came up with B. come out of C. came up to

D. came along with

30. A. companionB. compromise C. competence D. compensation

31. A. via B. as C. with D. for

32. A. capturedB. appealedC. favoredD. held

33. A. documentedB. recognizedC. illustrated D. scheduled

34. A. volunteered B. embarrassed C. sponsored

D. obliged

35. A. triple B. doubleC. fourfoldD. equal

PART Ⅲ READING COMPREHENSION

Section A(60 minutes, 30 points)

Directions: Below each of the following passages you will find some questions or incomplete statements. Each question or statement is followed by four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Read each passage carefully, and then select the choice that best answers the question or completes the statement. Mark the letter of your choice with a single bar across the square bracket on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

Passage One

At many colleges, smokers are being run not just out of school buildings but off the premises. On Nov. 19 , the University of Kentucky, the tobacco state’s flagship public institution, Launched a campus wide ban on cigarettes and all other forms of tobacco on school grounds and parking areas. Pro-nicotine students staged a “smoke-out”to protest the new policy, which even rules out smoking inside cars if they’re on school property.

Kentucky joins more than 365 U. S. colleges and universities that in recent years have instituted antismoking rules both indoors and out. In most places, the issue doesn’t seem to be secondhand smoke. Rather, the rationale for going smoke-free in wide open spaces is a desire to model healthy behavior.

Purdue University, which has 30-ft. buffer zones, recently considered adopting a campuswide ban but tempered its proposal after receiving campus input. Smoking will now be restricted to

limited outdoor areas.

One big problem with a total ban is enforcing it. Take the University of Iowa. In July 2008, the school went smoke-free in accordance with the Iowa Smokefree Air Act, violations of which can result in a $50 fine. But so far, the university has ticketed only about 25 offenders. “Our campus is about 1, 800 acres, so to think that we could keep track of who is smoking on campus at any given time isn’t really feasible, ”says Joni Troester, director of the university’s campus wellness program. Instead, the school helps those trying to kick the habit by offering smoking-cessation programs and providing reimbursement for nicotine patches, gum and prescription medications like Zyban.

The University of Michigan will probably take a similar approach when its ban takes effect in July 2011. “We don’t have a desire to give tickets or levy punishments, ”says Robert Winfield, the school’s chief health officer. “We want to encourage people to stop smoking, set a good example for students and make this a healthier community. ”

Naturally, there has been pushback from students. “Where do we draw the line between a culture of health and individual choice?”asks Jnathan Slemrod, a University of Michigan senior and president of the school’s College Libertarians. “If they truly want a culture of health, I expect them to go through all our cafeterias and get rid of all our Taco Bells, all our pizza places. ”Students might want to enjoy those Burrito Supremes while they can. In today’s health-obsessed culture, those may be next.

36. We can infer that the “newness”of the antismoking policy at the University of Kentucky lies in _________ .

A. its extended scope of no-smoking places

B. its prohibition of cigarette sales on campus

C. its penalty for bringing tobacco to school

D. its ban on smoke when people are driving

37. By setting the antismoking rules the University of Kentucky mainly aims for _________ .

A. protecting students against passive smoking

B. modeling itself on many other universities

C. promoting the students’ health awareness

D. punishing those who dare smoke on campus

38. One of the problems enforcing the ban on smoking at the University of Iows is _________ .

A. limiting the smoke-free areas

B. tracing smokers on campus

C. forcing smokers to give up smoking

D. providing alternative ways for smokers

39. The word “levy”(in Paragraph 5)most probably means

_________ .

A. imposeB. avoidC. deserveD. receive

40. According to Jonathan Slemrod, Taco Bell is _________ .

A. a tobacco shopB. a school cafeteria

C. an organic food store D. an unhealthy food chain

41. The author’s tone in the essay is _________ .

A. radical B. optimistic C. objective

D. critical

Passage Two

The familiar sounds of an early English summer are with us once again. Millions of children sit down to SATs, GCSEs, AS-levels, A-levels and a host of lesser exams, and the argument over educational standards starts. Depending on whom you listen to, we should either be letting up on over-examined pupils by abolishing SATs, and even GCSEs, or else making exams far more rigorous.

The chorus will reach a peak when GCSE and A-level results are published in August. If pass rates rise again, commentators will say that standards are falling because exams are getting easier. If pass rates drop, they will say that standards are falling because children are getting lower marks. Parents like myself try to ignore this and base our judgments on what our children are learning. But it’s not easy given how much education has changed since we were at school.

Some trends are encouraging-education has been made more relevant and enthuses many children that it would have previously bored. My sons’ A-level French revision involved listening to radio debates on current affairs, whereas mine involved rereading Moliere. And among their peers, a far greater proportion stayed in education for longer.

On the other hand, some aspects of schooling today are incomprehensible to my generation, such as gaps in general knowledge and the hand-holding that goes with ensuring that students leave with good grades. Even when we parents resist the temptation to help with GCSE or A-level coursework, a teacher with the child’s interests at heart may send a draft piece of work back several times with pointers to how it can be improved before the examiners see it.

The debate about standards persists because there is no single objective answer to the question: “Are standards better or worse than they were a generation ago?”Each side points to indicators that favor them, in the knowledge that there is no authoritative definition, let alone a measure that has been consistently applied over the decades. But the annual soul-searching over exams is about more than student assessment. It reveals a national insecurity about whether our education system is teaching the right things. It is also fed by an anxiety about whether, in a country with a history of upholding standards by ensuring that plenty of students fail, we can attain the more modern objective of ensuring that every child leaves school with something to show for it.

42. It can be concluded from Paragraph 1 that _________ .

A. SATs is one of the most rigorous exams mentioned

B. it has been debated if children should b given exams

C. few parents approve of the exam systems in England

D. each year children have to face up to some new exams

43. Parents try to judge the educational standards by _________ .

A. whether their children have passed the exams

B. what knowledge their children have acquired

C. what educators say about curriculum planning

D. whether their children’s school scores are stable

44. To the author, the rereading of Moliere was _________ .

A. drearyB. routineC. outmoded D. arduous

45. To the author’s generation, it is beyond understanding today why _________ .

A. teachers lay great stress on helping students obtain good grades

B. teachers show much concern for students’ future

C. parents help little with their children’s coursework

篇二:中科院博士入学考试英语真题

中科院博士入学考试英语真题 Text D Family Matters

This month Singapore passed a bill that would give legal teeth to the moral obligation to support one's parents. Called the Maintenance of Parents Bill, it received the backing of the Singapore Government.

That does not mean it hasn't generated discussion. Several members of the Parliament opposed the measure as un-Asian. Others who acknowledged the problem o f the elderly poor believed it a disproportionate response. Still others believe it will subvert relations within the family: cynics dubbed it the "Sue Your Son" law.

Those who say that the bill does not promote filial responsibility, of course, are right. It has nothing to do with filial responsibility. It kicks in where filial responsibility fails. The law cannot legislate filial responsibility any more than it can legislate love. All the law can do is to provide a safety net where this morality proves insufficient. Singapore needs this bill not to replace morality, but to provide incentives to shore it up.

Like many other developed nations, Singapore faces the problems of an increasing proportion of people over 60 years of age.

Demography is inexorable. In 19 80, 7.2% of the population was in this bracket. By the end of the century that figure will grow to 11%. By 2030, the proportion is projected to be 26%. The problem is not old age per se. It is that the ratio of economically active people to economically inactive people that will decline.

But no amount of government exhortation or paternalism will completely eliminate the problem of old people who have insufficient means to make ends meet. Some people will fall through the holes in any safety net.

Traditionally, a person's insurance against poverty in his old age was his family, lifts is not a revolutionary concept. Nor is it uniquely Asian. Care an d support for one's parents is a universal value shared by all civilized societies.

The problem in Singapore is that the moral obligation to look after one's parents is unenforceable. A father can be compelled by law to maintain his children. A husband can be forced to support his wife. But, until now, a son or daughter had no legal obligation to support his or her parents.

1989, an Advisory Council was set up to look into the problems of the aged. Its report stated with a tinge of complacency that 95% of those who did not have their own income were receiving cash contributions from relations. But what about the 5% who aren't getting relatives' support? They have several options: (a) get a job and work until they die; (b) apply for public assistance(you have to be destitute to apply); or(c) starve quietly. None of these options is socially acceptable. And what if this 5% figure grows, as it is likely to do, as society ages?

The Maintenance of Parents Bill was put forth to encourage the traditional virtues that have so far kept Asian nations from some of the breakdowns encountered in other affluent societies. This legislation will allow a person to apply t o the court for maintenance from any or all of his children. The court would have the discretion to refuse to make an order if it is unjust. Those who deride the proposal for opening up the courts to family lawsuits miss the point. Only in extreme cases

would any parent take his child to court. If it does indeed become law, the bill's effect would be far more subtle.

First, it will reaffirm the notion that it is each individual's - not society's - responsibility to look after his parents. Singapore is still conservative enough that most people will not object to this idea. It reinforces the traditional values and it doesn't hurt a society now and then to remind itself of its core values.Second, and more important, it will make those who are inclined to shirk their responsibilities think twice. Until now, if a person asked family elders, clergymen or the Ministry of Community Development to help get financial support from his children, the most they could do was to mediate. But mediators have no teeth, and a child could simply ignore their pleas.

But to be sued by one's parents would be a massive loss of face. It would be a public disgrace. Few people would be so thick-skinned as to say, "Sue and be damned". The hand of the conciliator would be immeasurably strengthened. It is far more likely that some sort of amicable settlement would be reached if the recalcitrant son or daughter knows that the alternative is a public trial.

It would be nice to think Singapore doesn't need this kind of law. But that belief ignores the clear demographic trends and the effect of affluence itself on

traditional bends. Those of us who pushed for the bill will consider ourselves most successful if it acts as an incentive not to have it invoked in the first place.

78. The Maintenance of Parents Bill

A. received unanimous support in the Singapore Parliament

B. was believed to solve all the problems of the elderly poor

C. was intended to substitute for traditional values in Singapore

D. was passed to make the young more responsible to the old

79. By quoting the growing percentage points of the aged in the population, the author seems to imply that __

A. the country will face mounting problems of the old in future

B. the social welfare system would be under great pressure

C. young people should be given more moral education

D. the old should be provided with means of livelihood

80. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

A. Filial responsibility in Singapore is enforced by law.

B. Fathers have legal obligations to look after their children.

C. It is an acceptable practice for the old to continue working.

D. The Advisory Council was dissatisfied with the problems of the old

篇三:2015年中科院考博英语

考试对象 报考中国科学院大学各单位(具体指中国科学院所属各研究院、所、中心、园、台、站 及校部各直属院系)相关专业拟攻读博士学位的考生。 考试目的 检验考生是否具有进入攻读博士学位阶段的英语水平和能力。 考试类型、考试内容及考试结构 本考试共有五个部分:词汇(占 10%)、完形填空(占 15%)、阅读理解(占 40%)、英 译汉(占 15%),写作(占 20%)。试卷分为:试卷一(Paper One)客观试题,包括前 三个部分,共 75 题,顺序排号;试卷二(Paper Two)主观试题,包括英译汉和写作两个 部分。 一、词汇 主要测试考生是否具备一定的词汇量和根据上下文对词和词组意义判断的能力。 词和词 组的测试范围基本以本考试大纲词汇表为参照依据。共 20 题。每题为一个留有空白的英文 句子。要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出可用在句中的最恰当词或词组。 二、完形填空 主要测试考生在语篇层次上的理解能力以及对词汇表达方式和结构掌握的程度。 考生应 具有借助于词汇、 句法及上下文线索对语言进行综合分析和应用的能力。 要求考生就所给篇 章中 15 处空白所需的词或短语分别从四个选项中选出最佳答案。 三、阅读理解 本部分共分两节。要求考生能: 1)掌握中心思想、主要内容和具体细节; 2)进行相关的判断和推理; 3)准确把握某些词和词组在上下文中的特定含义; 4)领会作者观点和意图、判断作者的态度。 A 节:主要测试考生在规定时间内通过阅读获取相关信息的能力。考生须完成 1800-2000 词的阅读量并就题目从四个选项中选出最佳答案。 B 节: 主要测试考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的理解。 考生须完成 700-900 词的阅读量(2 篇短文),并根据每篇文章(约 400 词)的内容,从文后所提供的 6 段文字 中选择能分别放进文章中 5 个空白处的 5 段。 四、英译汉 要求考生将一篇近 400 词的英语短文中有下划线的 5 个句子翻译成汉语。主要测试考 生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思,并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来。 五、写作 要求考生按照命题、所给提纲或背景图、表写出一篇不少于 200 字的短文。目的是测

试考生用英语表达思想或传递信息的能力及对英文写作基础知识的实际运用。 考试时间及计分 考试时间总计为 180 分钟,其中试卷一为 110 分钟,试卷二为 70 分钟。 卷面总分 100 分。 详见下表 试卷一:题号 I II III-A III-B 小计 名称 词汇选择填空 完形填空 阅读理解(A) 阅读理解(B) 题量 20 15 30 10 75 分值 10 15 30 10 65 时间(分钟) 15 15 60 20 110 分钟试卷二:题号 IV V 小计 名称 英译汉–语篇中句子 写作 题量 5 1 6 分值 15 20 35 时间(分钟) 30 40 70 分钟