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全国硕士研究生入学考试英语最新题型

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篇一:2015年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题及答案

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2015年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语

(一)试题及答案 Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of .

The study is a genome-wide analysis unique subjects genetics at UC San Diego, says, “most people do not evenfourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who

for immunity. Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain for now. many mechanisms working together in choosing genetically similar friends 13 “functional Kinship” of being friends with than why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 factor.

The findings do not simply explain people?sto be friend those of backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1、 [A]what[B]why[C]how [D]when

2、 [A]defended[B]concluded [C]withdrawn [D] advised

3、 [A]for [B]with[C]by [D]on

4、 [A]separated[B]sought [C]compared [D] connected

5 、[A]tests [B] objects[C]samples [D]examples

6、 [A]insignificant[B]unexpected [C] ueliable [D]incredible

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7、 [A]visit [B]miss[C] know [D] seek

8、 [A]surpass [B] influence [C] favor[D]resemble

9、 [A]again[B] also[C]instead [D]thus

10、[A] Meanwhile [ B]Furthermore [C] Likewise[D]Perhaps

11、[A] about[ B] to [C] from [D]like

12、[A] limit [ B] observe [C] confuse[D]drive

13、[A] according to [ B] rather than[C] regardless of[D]along with

14、[A]chances [ B]responses [C]benefits [D]missions

15、[A] faster [ B]slower [C] later [D]earlier

16、[A] forecast [ B] remember [C] express [D]understand

17、[A] unpredictable[ B] contributory [C] controllable [D]disruptive

18、[A] tendency [ B] decision[C]arrangement [D]endeavor

19、[A] political [ B]religious[C] ethnic [D]economic

20、[A] see[ B]show[C] prove [D]tell

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don?t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs? continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they

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claimed to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today - embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe?s monarchies will no do

全国硕士研究生入学考试英语最新题型

ubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy?s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service - as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy?s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two paragraph, King Juan Carl of Spain

[A] used to enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] cased his relationship with his rivals

[D] ended his reign in embarrassment

22. Monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats? excessive reliance on inherited wealth.

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.

[D] The nobility?s adherence to their privileges.

24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

[A] takes a tough line on political issues.

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised.

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies.

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role.

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

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Text 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California?s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California?s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone-- a vast storehouse of digital information--is similar to say, going through a suspect?s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocket book, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one?s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. A smart phone may contain an arrestee?s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution's prohibition on ueasonable searches.

As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn't ease the challenge of line-drawing. In many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorizes to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom.

But the justices should not swallow California?s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution?s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] search for suspects? mobile phones without a warrant.

[B] check suspects? phone contents without being authorized.

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author?s attitude toward California?s argument is one of

[A] tolerance.

[B] indifference.

[C] disapproval.

[D] cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one?s phone content is comparable to

[A] getting into one?s residence.

[B] handing one?s historical records.

[C] scanning one?s correspondences.

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[D] going through one?s wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

[D] citizens? privacy is not effective protected.

30.Orin Kerr?s comparison is quoted to indicate that

[A]the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

[B]New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

[C]California?s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

[D]Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.

“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal?s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.”

John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is “a most welcome step forward” and “long overdue.” “Most journals are weak in statistical review, and this damages the quality of what they publish. I think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review,” he says. But he noted that biomedical journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.

Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research, according to David Vaux, a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012, but journals should also take a tougher line,

篇二:2015年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题及答案解析

2015年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题及答案解析

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)Though not biologically related, friends are as ―related‖ as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of uelated friends and uelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, ―Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.‖

The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_‖functional Kinship‖ of being friends with_(14)_!

One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

The findings do not simply explain people‘s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell Section II Reading ComprehensionPart ADirections:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted ―kings don‘t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.‖ But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above ―mere‖ politics and ―embody‖ a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs‘ continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe‘s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy‘s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy‘s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain[A] used turn enjoy high public support[B] was unpopular among European royals[C] cased his relationship with his rivals[D]ended his reign in embarrassment

22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality[C] to give voter more public figures to look up to[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?[A] Aristocrats‘ excessive reliance on inherited wealth[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families[D]The nobility‘s adherence to their privileges

24. The British royals ―have most to fear‖ because Charles[A] takes a rough line on political issues[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised[C] takes republicans as his potential allies[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs[D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats Text 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California‘s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California‘s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone — a vast storehouse of digital information — is similar to, say, rifling through a suspect‘s purse. The court has ruled that police don‘t violate the Fourth Amendment when they sift through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one‘s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. A smart phone may contain an arrestee‘s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of ―cloud computing,‖ meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution‘s prohibition on ueasonable searches.

As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn‘t ease the challenge of line-drawing. In many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom.

But the justices should not swallow California‘s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution‘s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme Court will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to[A] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.[B] search for suspects‘ mobile phones without a warrant.[C] check suspects‘ phone contents without being authorized.[D]prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author‘s attitude toward California‘s argument is one of[A] disapproval.[B] indifference.[C] tolerance.[D]cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one‘s phone contents is comparable to[A] getting into one‘s residence.[B] handling one‘s historical records.[C] scanning one‘s correspondences.[D] going through one‘s wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.[B] the court is giving police less room for action.[C] citizens‘ privacy is not effectively protected.[D] phones are used to store sensitive information.30. Orin Kerr‘s comparison is quoted to indicate that[A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

[B] new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.[C]California‘s argument violates principles of the Constitution.[D]principles of the Constitution should never be altered Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.

―Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,‖ writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors(SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal‘s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: ―The creation of the ?statistics board‘ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science‘s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.‖

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group. He says he expects the board to ―play primarily an advisory role.‖ He agreed to join because he ―found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.‖

John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is ―a most welcome step forward‖ and ―long overdue.‖ ―Most journals are weak in statistical review, and this damages the quality of what they publish. I think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review,‖ he says. But he noted that biomedical journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.

Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research, according to David Vaux, a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012, but journals should also take a tougher line, ―engaging reviewers who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process‖. Vaux says that Science‘s idea to pass some papers to statisticians ―has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify ?the papers that need scrutiny‘ in the first place‖.

31. It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that

[A] Science intends to simplify their peer-review process.[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks.[C] few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.[D] lack of data analysis is common in research projects. 32. The phrase ―flagged up‖ (Para. 2) is the closest in meaning to[A] found.[B] marked.[C] revised.[D] stored.

33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

[A] pose a threat to all its peers. Text 4

Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch‘s daughter ,Elisabeth ,spoke of the ―unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions‖ Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only ―sorting mechanism ‖in society should be profit and the market .But ―it‘s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit ‖.

Driving her point home, she continued: ―It‘s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.‖ This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking .

As the hacking trial concludes – finding guilty ones-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge –the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .This is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds.

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.

In today‘s world, title has become normal that well—paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business–friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.

The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.

36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by[A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism[B] companies‘ financial loss due to immoral practices.[C] governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.[D]the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

[A] Glem Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime[B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.[C] Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.[D] phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.38. The author believes the Rebekah Books‘s deference[A] revealed a cunning personality[B] centered on trivial issues[C] was hardly convincing[D] was part of a conspiracy

39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows[B] meet with strong opposition.[C] increase Science‘s circulation.[D]set an example for other journals.

34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now[A] adds to researchers‘ workload.[B] diminishes the role of reviewers.[C] has room for further improvement.[D]is to fail in the foreseeable future

35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?[A] Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers.[B] Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect[C] Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors‘ Desks[D] Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

[A] generally distorted values[B] unfair wealth distribution[C] a marginalized lifestyle[D] a rigid moral cote

40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph? Part BDirections:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the fist A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your explicit knowledge of English grammar (41) ______you begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved: who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where.

The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just passive assimilation but of active engagement inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and cues (42) _______

Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or ―true‖ meaning that can be read off and clocked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of the text to the world. (43) _______

Such background material inevitably reflects who we are, (44) _______This doesn‘t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page-including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns-debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of beliefs and values.

How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45)_______such dimensions of read suggest-as others introduced later in the book will also do-that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It doesn‘t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different kinds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.

[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfils the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.

[B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretation but at the same time obscure or even close off others.

[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the contest. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.

[D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended.

[E]You make further inferences, for instance, about how the test may be significant to you, or about its validity—inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.

[F]In plays,novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author‘s own thoughts.

[G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to test on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organization or patterning we perceive in a text‘s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.

Section III TranslationDirections:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration—one of the great folk wanderings of history—swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic

[A] The quality of writing is of primary importance.[B] Common humanity is central news reporting.[C] Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper.[D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.

篇三:2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)真题 含答案

2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题真题

(答案整理截至2015-12-27)

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

In Cambodia the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends,1those of the young women, but also a matchmaker. A young man can 2 a likely spouse on his own and them ask his parents to 3 the marriage negotiations. or the young man's parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. 4 , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. 5 a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying 6 a good family.

The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days 7 by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and 8 prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, 9 cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists ,and 10 a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the 11 .Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may 12 with them up to a year, 13 they can build a flew house nearby.

Divorce is legal and easy to 14 ,but not common .Divorced persons are 15 with some disapproval. Each spouse retains 16 property he or she 17 into the marriage, and jointly -acquired property is 18 equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice 19 up .The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry 20 the woman must wait the months.

1. [A] by way of [B] as well as [C] on behalf of [D] with regard to

2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C]compete with [D] decide on

3. [A] close [B] renew [C]arrange [D] postpone

4.[A] In theory [B] Above all [C] In time [D] For example

5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless

6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through

7. [A] sine [B] or[C] but [D] so

8. [A] test [B]copy [C]recite [D] create

9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying

10. [A] lighting [B] passing [C] hiding[D] serving

11. [A] meeting [B] association [C] collection [D]union

12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal[D]live

13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] for [D] if

14. [A] obtain [B] follow [C] challenge [D]avoid

15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed

16. [A]wherever[B] however [C] whenever [D]whatever

17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped[D] pushed

18. [A] divided [B] invested [C] donated [D] withdrawn

19. [A]clears [B] warms [C] shows [D] breaks

20. [A]while [B] so what [C]once [D] in that

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for woman. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

The parliament also agreed to ban websites that" incite excessive thinness" by promoting extreme dieting.

Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up with impinging on health. That's a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starring themselves to health -as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it move take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape -measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

The bans, if fully enforced ,would suggest to woman (and many men )that they should not let others be orbiters of their beauty .And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to sine zero or wasp-waist physiques .

The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mess could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standard for models and fashion images there rely more on pear pressure for enforcement.

In contrast to France's actions, Denmark's fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding age, health, and other characteristics of models .The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical charter clearly states, we are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people. The charter's main toll of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen. Fashion week, which is men by the Danish Fashion Institute .But in general it relies on a name-and -shame method of compliance.

Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

[A] Physical beauty would be redefined

[B] New runways would be constructed [C] Websites about dieting would thrive [D] The fashion industry would decline 22. The phrase "impinging on"(Line2 Para2) is closest in meaning to [A] heightening the value of [B] indicating the state of [C] losing faith in [D] doing harm to 23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry [A] The French measures have already failed [B] New standards are being set in Denmark [C] Models are no longer under peer pressure [D] Its inherent problems are getting worse 24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for [A] setting perfect physical conditions [B] caring too much about models' character [C] showing little concern for health factors [D] pursuing a high age threshold for models 25. Which of the following maybe the best title of the text? [A] A challenge to the Fashion Industry's Body Ideals [B] A Dilemma for the starving models in France [C] Just Another Round of struggle for beauty

[D] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

Text 2

For the first time in the history more people live in towns than in the country. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate "the countryside" alongside the royal family. Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what make them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save "the beauty of natural places for everyone forever". It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience "a refreshing air". Hill's pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don't make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it .It needs constant guardianship.

At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The Conservatives' planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation,

even authorizing "off-plan" building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent only u sensing its chance, has sides with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its campaign to protect Rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties.The sensible place to build new houses factories and offices is where people are in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents StirlingAckroyed recently identified enough sites for half of million houses in the Landon area alone with no intrusion on green belts.

What is true of London is even truer of the provinces. The idea that "housing crisis" equals "concreted meadows" is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but, as always, where to put them under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?

Development should be planned, not let trip, After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe's most crowed country. Half a century of town and country planning has enable it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. There is no doubt of the alternative-the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal, Spain or Ireland. Avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum.

26. Britain's public sentiment about the countryside

[A] is not well reflected in politics

[B] is fully backed by the royal family

[C] didn't start fill the Shakespearean age

[D] has brought much benefit to the NHS

27. According to paragraph 2,the achievements of the National Trust are now being [A] largely overshadowed [B] properly protected [C] effectively reinforced [D] gradually destroyed 28. Which of the following can be offered from paragraph 3 [A] Labour is under attack for opposing development [B] The Conservatives may abandon "off-plan" building [C] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation [D] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence 29. The author holds that George Osbornes's preference [A] shows his disregard for the character of rural area [B] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis [C] highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure [D] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas 30. In the last paragraph the author show his appreciation of [A] the size of population in Britain [B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain

[D] the political life in today's Britain

Text 3

"There is one and only one social responsibility of business" wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel Prize-winning economist "That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits." But even if you accept Friedman's premise and regard corporate social responsibility(CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders's money, things may not be absolutely clear-act. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies at least

when they are prosecuted for corruption.

The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a "signal" that a company's products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company's products as an indirect may to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse "halo effect" whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under American's Foreign Corrupt Practices Act(FCPA).It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company's products as part of their investigations,they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

The study found that,among prosecuted firms,those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm's political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company's record in CSR. "We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about20% result in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials." says one researcher.

Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question at how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.

31. The author views Milton Friedman's statement about CSR with

[A]uncertainty

[B]skepticism

[C]approval

[D]tolerance

32. According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by

[A]guarding it against malpractices

[B]protecting it from consumers

[C]winning trust from consumers.

[D]raising the quality of its products

33. The expression "more lenient"(line 2,Para.4)is closest in meaning to

[A]less controversial

[B]more lasting

[C]more effective

[D]less severe

34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company's CSR record

[A]comes across as reliable evidence

[B]has an impact on their decision

[C]increases the chance of being penalized