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pan.baidu.com清华大学博士生入学考试英语试题选编

时间:2016-12-06 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:清华大学博士入学考试英语真题

清华大学博士研究生入学考试真题

Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (20%)

Part Ⅱ Vocabulary (10%)

 Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one that completes the sentence and then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWET SHEET with a single line through the center.

21. The__________of the spring water attracts a lot of visitors from other parts of the country

A. clash B. clarify C. clarity D. clatter

22. Business in this area has been__________because prices are too high.

A. prosperous B. secretive C. slackD. shrill

23. He told a story about his sister who was in a sad__________when she was ill and had no money.

A. plightB. polarization C. plague D. pigment

24. He added a__________to his letter by saying that he would arrive before 8 pm.

A. presidency B. prestige C. postscriptD. preliminary

25. Some linguists believe that the________age for children learning a foreign language is 5 to 8.

A. optimistic B. optional C. optimal D. oppressed

26. It all started in 1950, when people began to build their houses on the__________of their cities.

A. paradises B. omissionsC. orchards D. outskirts

27. The meeting was__________over by the mayor of the city.

A. presumedB. proposed C. presented D. presided

28. The crowd__________into the hall and some had to stand outside.

A. outgrewB. overthrewC. overpassed D. overflew

29. It was clear that the storm__________his arrival by two hours.

A. retardedB. retired C. refrained D. retreated

30. This problem should be discussed first, for it takes__________over all the other issues.

A. precedence B. prosperityC. presumption D. probability

31. Her sadness was obvious, but she believed that her feeling of depression was__________.

A. torrent B. transient C. tensile D. textured

32. Nobody knew how he came up with this__________idea about the trip.

A. weary B. twilight C. unanimous D. weird

33. The flower under the sun would__________quickly without any protection.

A. wink B. withhold C. wither D. widower

34. The__________of gifted children into accelerated classes will start next week according to their academic performance.

A. segregation B. specification C. spectrumD. subscription

35. He__________himself bitterly for his miserable behavior that evening.

A. repealed B. resentedC. relayed D. reproached

36. Any earthquake that takes place in any area is certainly regarded as a kind of a __________event

A. cholesterolB. charcoalC. catastrophicD. chronic

37. He cut the string and held up the two__________to tie the box.

A. segments B. sediments C. seizuresD. secre

38. All the music instruments in the orchestra will be__________before it starts.

A. civilizedB. chattered C. chamberedD. chorded

39. When the air in a certain space is squeezed to occupy a smaller space, the air is said to be__________.

A. commencedB. compressed C. compromised D. compensated

40. She made two copies of this poem and posted them__________to different publishers.

A. sensationallyB. simultaneously C. strenuouslyD. simply

Part ⅢReading Comprehension (40%)

 Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions of unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. You should decide on the best choice and then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet. Questions 41 to 45 are based on the following passage:

Each year, millions of people in Bangladesh drink ground water that has been polluted by naturally high levels of arsenic poison. Finding safe drinking water in that country can be a problem. However, International Development Enterprises has a low-cost answer. This non-governmental organization has developed technology to harvest rainwater.

People around the world have been harvesting rainwater for centuries. It is a safe, dependable source of drinking water. Unlike ground water, rainwater contains no minerals or salts and is free of chemical treatments. Best of all, it is free.

The rainwater harvesting system created by International Development Enterprises uses pipes to collect water from the tops of buildings. The pipes stretch from the tops of buildings to a two-meter tall storage tank made of metal. At the top of the tank is a so-called “first-flush”device made of wire screen. This barrier prevents dirt and leaves in the water from falling inside the tank.

A fitted cover sits over the “first-flush” device. It protects the water inside the tank from evaporating. The cover also prevents mosquito insects from laying eggs in the water.

Inside the tank is a low coat plastic bag that collects the water. The bag sits inside another plastic bag similar to those used to hold grains. The two bags are supported inside the metal tank. All total, the water storage system can hold up to three-thousand-five-hundred liters of water. International Development Enterprises says the inner bags may need to be replaced every two to three years. However, if the bags are not damaged by sunlight, they could last even longer.

International Development Enterprises says the water harvesting system should be built on a raised structure to prevent insects from eating into it at the bottom. The total cost to build this rainwater harvesting system is about forty dollars. However, International Development Enterprises expects the price to drop over time. The group says one tank can provide a family of five with enough rainwater to survive a five-month dry season.

41. People in Bangladesh can use__________as a safe source of drinking water.

A. ground water B. rainwater C. drinking water D. fresh water

42. Which of the following contributes to the low-cost of using rainwater?

A. Rainwater is free of chemical treatments.

B. People have been harvesting rainwater for centuries.

C. The water harvesting system is built on a platform.

D. Rainwater can be collected using pipes.

43. Which of the following actually prevents dirt and leaves from falling inside the tank?

A. a barrier B. a wire screen C. a first-flushD. a storage tank

44. The bags used to hold water are likely to be damaged by__________.

A. mosquito insects B. a fitted coverC. a first-flush deviceD.

sunlight

45. What should be done to prevent insects from eating into the water harvesting system at the bottom?

A. The two bags holding the water should be put inside the metal tank.

B. The inner bags (转 载自:wWw.HN1c.cOM 唯才 教 育网:pan.baidu.com清华大学博士生入学考试英语试题选编)need to be replaced every two years.

C. The water harvesting system should be built on a platform.

D. A cover should be used to prevent insects from eating it.

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage:

Where one stage of child development has been left out, or not sufficiently experienced, the child may have to go back and capture the experience of it. A good home makes this possible, for example by providing the opportunity for the child to play with a clockwork car or toy railway train up to any age if he still needs to do so. This principle, in fact, underlies all psychological treatment of children in difficulties with their development, and is the basis of work in child clinics. The beginnings of discipline are in the nursery. Even the youngest baby is taught by gradual stages to wait for food, to sleep and wake at regular intervals and so on. If the child feels the world around him is a warm and friendly one, he slowly accepts its rhythm and accustoms himself to conforming to its demands. Learning to wait for things, particularly for food, is a very important element in upbringing, and is achieved successfully only if too great demands are not made before the child can understand them.

Every parent watches eagerly the child's acquisition of each new skill—the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feeling of failure and states of anxiety in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural zest for life and his desire to find out new things for himself. Learning together is a fruit source of relationship between children and parents. By playing together, parents learn more about their children and children learn more from their parents. Toys and games which both parents and children can share are an important means of achieving this co-operation. Building-block toys, jigsaw puzzles and crossword are good examples.

Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness or indulgence towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters, others are severe over times of coming home at night, punctuality for meals or personal cleanliness. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own happiness and well-being.

46. The principle underlying all treatment of developmental difficulties in children__________.

A. is to send them to clinics

B. offers recapture of earlier experiences

C. is in the provision of clockwork toys and trains

D. is to capture them before they are sufficiently experienced

47. The child in the nursery__________.

A. quickly learns to wait for food

B. doesn't initially sleep and wake at regular intervals

C. always accepts the rhythm of the world around them

D. always feels the world around him is warm and friendly

48. The encouragement of children to achieve new skills__________.

A. can never be taken too far

B. should be left to school teachers

C. will always assist their development

D. should be balanced between two extremes

49. Jigsaw puzzles are__________.

A. too difficult for children

B. a kind of building-block toy

C. not very entertaining for adults

D. suitable exercises for parent-child cooperation

50. Parental controls and discipline__________.

A. serve a dual purpose

B. should be avoided as much as possible

C. reflect the values of the community

D. are designed to promote the child's happiness

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage:

More than half of all Jews married in U. S. since 1990 have wed people who aren't Jewish. Nearly 480, 000 American children under the age of ten have one Jewish and one non-Jewish parent. And, if a survey compiled by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles is any indication, it's almost certain that most of these children will not identify themselves as “Jewish” when they get older.

That survey asked college freshmen, who are usually around age 18, about their own and their parents' religious identities. Ninety-three percent of those with two Jewish parents said they thought of themselves as Jewish. But when the father wasn't Jewish, the number dropped to 38 percent, and when the mother wasn't Jew, just 15 percent of the students said they were Jewish, too.

“I think what was surprising was just how low the Jewish identification was in these mixed marriage families.” Linda Sax is a professor of education at UCLA. She directed the survey which was conducted over the course of more than a decade and wasn't actually about religious identity specifically. But Professor Sax says the answers to questions about religion were particularly striking, and deserve a more detailed study. She says it's obvious that interfaith marriage works against the development of Jewish identity among children, but says it's not clear at this point why that's the case. “This new study is necessary to get more in-depth about their feelings about their religion. That's something that the study that I completed was not able to do. We didn't have information on how they feel about their religion, whether they have any concern about their issues of identification, how comfortable they feel about their lifelong goals. I think the new study's going to cover some of that,” she says.

Jay Rubin is executive director of Hilel, a national organization that works with Jewish college students. Mr. Rubin says Judaism is more than a religion, it's an experience. And with that in mind, Hillel has commissioned a study of Jewish attitudes towards Judaism. Researchers will concentrate primarily on young adults, and those with two Jewish parents, and those with just one, those who see themselves as Jewish and those who do not. Jay Rubin says Hillel will then use this study to formulate a strategy for making Judaism more relevant to the next generation of American Jews.

51. The best title of this passage is__________.

A. Jewish and Non-Jewish in American

B. Jewish Identity in America

C. Judaism-a Religion?

D. College Jewish Students

52. Among the freshmen at UCLA__________thought themselves as Jewish.

A. most

B. 93% of those whose parents were both Jewish

C. 62% of those only whose father were Jewish

D. 15% of those only whose mother were Jewish

53. The phrase “interfaith marriage” in the Paragraph 3 refers to the__________.

A. marriage of people based on mutual belief

B. marriage of people for the common faith

C. marriage of people of different religious faiths

D. marriage of people who have faith in each other

54. Which of the following statements is NOT true about professor Sax's research?

A. The research indicates that most students with only one Jewish parent will not think themselves as Jewish.

B. The survey was carried out among Jewish Freshmen.

C. The research survey didn't find out what and how these Jewish students think about their religion.

D. The research presents a new perspective for the future study.

55. Which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?

A. Mr. Rubin is the founder of Hillel.

B. Mr. Rubin thinks that Judaism is not a religion and it's an experience.

C. Hillel is an organization concerned with Jewish college students in the world.

D. Hillel has asked certain people to carry out a study about Jewish attitudes towards Judaism.

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage:

Governments that want their people to prosper in the burgeoning world economy should guarantee two basic rights: the right to private property and the right to enforceable contracts, says Mancur Olson in his book Power and Prosperity. Olson was an economics professor at the University of Maryland until his death in 1998.

Some have argued that such rights are merely luxuries that wealthy societies bestow, but Olson turns that argument around and asserts that such rights are essential to creating wealth. “In comes are low in most of the countries of the world, in short, because the people in those countries do not have secure in dividual rights,” he says.

Certain simple economic activities, such as food gathering and making handicrafts, rely mostly on individual labor; property is not necessary. But more advanced activities, such as the mass production of goods, require machines and factories and offices. This production is often called

capital-intensive, but it is really property-intensive, Olson observes.

“No one would normally engage in capital-intensive production if he or she did not have rights that kept the valuable capital from being taken by bandits, whether roving or stationary,”he argues. “There is no private property without government—individuals may have possessions, the way a dog possesses a bone, but there is private property only if the society protects and defends a private right to that possession against other private parties and against the government as well.” Would-be entrepreneurs, no matter how small, also need a government and court system that will make sure people honor their contracts. In fact, the banking systems relied on by developed nations are

篇二:2001清华大学博士入学考试英语作文

2001清华大学博士入学考试英语作文

Directions: in this section, you are asked to write a composition on the title of “the knowledge Ph.

D. students should acquire” with no less than 150 English words. Your composition should be based on the following outline given in Chinese.

1. 一些人认为博士生的知识以“博”为主。

2. 一些人认为博士生的知识以“专”为主。

3. 我的看法是:

The knowledge PhD students should acquire

In present society, some believe that PhD students should learn the knowledge comprehensively, that is, aiming at obtaining all the knowledge of various fields. They think as the advanced intellectuals, it is quite necessary of PhD students to study as much as they can so as to make others feel admiring to them. Also through this way, they can talk with others in any topic and promote the communications among the people from deferent grades.

However, others believe that PhD students should just focus all of their energies on their own major that is, aiming at becoming an expert of their research field. To do this, they have to give up their time spending on other subjects even in which they feel interests and dedicate all their time and energies to the study and research of their major. Of course, they might make greater achievements than those above in their own fields.

In my opinion, PhD students should focus on their major and at the same time they should do their best to learn comprehensively. Since PhD students are the most qualified in their major, they need to focus on their major and develop their expertise to become an expert in their fields. However, today only mastering their major knowledge is not enough because many research works require them possess comprehensive knowledge. The more they acquire, the better their abilities may develop, and the better their research will be done. Therefore, in order to achieve integrated development, PhD students should not only focus on their major but also gain knowledge of other fields.

篇三:清华大学博士英语入学考试-完型

2009年清华大学博士考试完型填空

清华大学博士题中完型填空是在一篇难度适中的短文中设置20个空白,短文长约300—350个词,从四个给出的选项中选出一个最佳答案;选项可以是一个单词,也可以是一个短语。

文章多为说明文和记叙文

完型填空是一项综合性的测试,也成为The use of English。 它是从语篇的水平上测试考生综合运用语言知识,测试词汇、语法、词组、句型及文章的整体结构。主要是要求考生在全面理解短文的基础上,选择一个最佳答案,能够使短文的意思连贯、结构完整、合理。因此需要注意语意、结构、逻辑和惯用法的关系。

基本要求:1)词汇和短语 2)语法知识 3)理解能力

应试要求:了解命题、有一定的题量、应试策略。

Sample 1

Double Income and No Kids (DINK) becomes fashionable in China. The DINK couples are usually regarded as those who have higher educations and __31__ careers with higher incomes. typical.

A survey conducted recently in Beijing by a market survey company __33__ that about 3.3 estimated there are about 600,000 DINK families in large cities like Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing. worry for the rapid growth of population; some are indulged in building a more well-off family; As an old Chinese saying goes, there are three aspects in failing to be a filial son and the __38__ serious one is to have no heir for the family. So childless couples will suffer discrimination But it is clear that the new tide of ideas has come, which suggests young people __40__ to choose their own way of life. They are installing modern ideas into traditional families and society. In the modernization process, personal choices will be highly respected.

31. A. stable B. availableC. achievable D. liable

32. A. had becomeB. may becomeC. became D. becomes

33. A. directedB. induced C. indicated D. dictated

34. A. no B. not C. hardlyD. scarcely

35. A. elegant B. abundantC. similar D. various

36. A. tension B. attentionC. intention D. interaction

37. A. Moreover B. HoweverC. According D. Generally

38. A. mostB. moreC. latest D. less

39. A. into B. toC. atD. from

40. A. wanted B. should want C. want D. had wanted

Sample 2

Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student.a long reading assignment is given, instructors expect students to be familiar with the 68in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or take an examination. The student is considered to be70 who is motivated to learn for the sake of 71 , not the one interested only in getting high grades. Sometimes homework is returned brief written comments but without a grade. Even if a grade is not given, the student is for learning the material assigned. When research is74 , the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with guidance. It is theresponsibility to find books, magazines, and articles in the library. Professors do not have the time to explain a university library works; they expect students,78 graduate students, to be able to exhaust the reference 79 in the library. Professors will help students who need it, but that their students should not bedependent on them. In the United States professors have many other dutiesteaching, such as administrative or research work. , the time that a professor can spend with student outside of class is . If a student has problems with classroom work, the student should either85a professor during office hour86make an appointment.

67 a) Ifb) Although c) Because d) Since

68 a) suggestion b) context c) abstractd) information

69 a) poor b) ideal c) averaged) disappointed

70 a) such b) one c) anyd) some

71 a) fun b) work c) learning d) prize

72

73

74

75 a ) by b) in c) ford) with a) criticizedb) innocent c) responsible d) dismissed a) collectedb) distributedc) assigned d) finished a) maximum b) minimum c) possible d) practical

76 a) student’sb) professor’sc) assistant’s d) librarian’s

77 a) whenb) what c) why d) how

78 a) particularly b) essentiallyc) obviously d) rarely

79 a) selections b) collectionsc) sourcesd) origins

80 a) hate b) dislikec) liked) prefer

81 a) too b) such c) much d) more

82 a) but b) except c) with d) besides

83 a) Howeverb) Therefore c) Furthermore d) Nevertheless

84 a) plentifulb) limited c) irregular d) flexible

85 a) greetb) annoy c) approachd) attach

86 a) or b) and c) tod) but

Passage 1

The United States has historically had higher rates of marriage than those of other industrialized countries. The current annual marriagein the United States—about 9 new marriages for every 1,000 people—is 57 higher than it is in other industrialized countries. However, marriage is as widespread as it was several decades ago. of American adults who are married from 72 percent in 1970 to 60 percent in 2002. This does not mean that large numbers of people will remain unmarried their lives. Throughout the 20th century, about 90 percent of Americans married at some in their lives. Experts

that about the same proportion of today’s young adults will eventually marry.

The timing of marriage has varied over the past century. In 1995 the average age of women in the United States at the time of their first marriage was 25. The average age of men was about 27. Men and women in the United States marry for the first time an average of five years later than people did in the 1950s. 65 , young adults of the 1950s married younger than did any previous in U.S. history. Today’s later age of marriage isthe age of marriage between 1890 and 1940. Moreover, a greater proportion of the population was married (95 percent) during the 1950s than at any time before68 . Experts do not agree on why the ―marriage rush‖ of the late 1940s and 1950s occurred, but most social scientists believe it represented a to the return of peaceful and prosperity after 15 years of severe economic and war.

56. A. rate B. ratio C percentage D. poll

57. A. potentially B intentionally C. randomly D.substantially 58 A. not any longer B. no more C. no longer D. not any more 59 A. A proportion B. The proportionC. The numberD. A number 60 A. declined B .deteriorated C deducedD demolished 61 A past B passingC throughoutD through 62 A period B levelC pointD respect 63 A project B planC promiseD propose

64 A unexpectedly B irregularly C flexibly D consistently 65 A Beside B However C WhereasD Nevertheless 66 A descendantsB ascendantsC population D generation 67 A according toB in line with C based D caused by 68 A and afterB or afterC or sinceD ever since 69 A refusalB realizationC response D reality

70 A repression B aggression C restriction D depression Passage 2

In recent years a new farming revolution has begun, one that involves the 61 of life at a fundamental level – the gene. The study of genetics has As the name suggest, it 63 biology and modem technology through such techniques as genetic engineering. Some of the new biotech companies specialize in

agriculture and are working feverishly to 64 seeds that give a high yield, that 65 diseases, drought and frost, and that reduce the need for 66 chemicals. If such goals could be achieved, it would be most 67. But some have raised concerns about genetically engineered crops.

In nature, genetic diversity is created within certain 68 .A rose can be crossed with a different kind of rose, but a rose will never cross with a potato. Genetic engineering, 69 usually involves taking genes from one species and inserting them into another 70 to transfer a desired characteristic. This could mean, for example, selecting a gene which leads to the production of a chemical with anti-freeze 71 from an artic fish, and inserting it into a potato or strawberry to make it frost-resistant. 72, then, biotechnology allows humans to 73 the genetic walls that separate species.

Like the green revolution, 74 some call the gene revolution contributes to the problem of genetic uniformity---some say even more so 75 geneticists can employ techniques such as cloning and 76 culture(培养), processes that produce perfectly 77 copies. Concerns about the erosion of biodiversity, therefore, remain. Genetically altered plants, however, raise new 78, such as the

effects that they may have on us and the environment. ―We are flying blindly into a new 79 of agricultural biotechnology with high hopes, few constraints, and little idea of the potential 80,‖ said science writer Jeremy Rifkin.

61. A. manipulation B. management C. manufacture D. maturity

62. A. got along withB. given rise to C. come up with D. lived up to

63. A. broodsB. breeds C. blends D. blasts

64. A. hatch B. trainC. duplicate D. patent

65. A. restrictB. resist C. reverse D. retrieve

66. A. hostileB. hydraulic C. hazardous D. harmless

67. A. beneficial B. disappointing C. surprising D. extreme

68. A. lines B. limits C. space D. ages

69. A. after allB. on the other hand C. in any case D. as a rest

70. A. to the point B. in no case C. in an attempt D. with regard

71. A. qualityB. propertyC. priorityD. quantity

72. A. In essenceB. In part C. In advanceD. In return

73. A. brake B. blazeC. breachD. brand

74. A. what B. as C. where D. so

75. A. thatB. because C. if D. when

76. A. skinB. tissue C. organ D. muscle

77. A. resembling B. alikeC. similarD. identical

78. A. issues B. height C. difficultiesD. goals

79. A. spotB. era C. deadline D. scheme

80. A. navigation B. mystery C. outcomes D. destination Passage 3

Imagine fishermen walking down to the seashore, ready to carry out their early morning routine of preparing their boats and net. ___71___ they hope for a good catch of fish. But to their ___72___ , a horrible sight meets their still sleepy eyes. Thousands of fish have washed ___73___ dead. The cause of this mass destruction? A red tide!

Red tides are a global ___74___. They have been observed on both the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of the United States and Canada. They have also___75___ in many other places. Though relatively few people are ___76___ them, red tides are not new.

In the Philippines, a red tide was first seen in the province of Bataan in 1908. Since then, red tides have been seen in many other ___77___. A Philippines red tide expert told us that " ___78___ the fish kills, the Philippines has documented 1, 926 cases of dead shellfish poisoning caused by red tides. "

The term "red tide" ___79___ the discoloration of water that sometimes occurs in certain areas of the ocean or sea. Although the color is often red, it may also be ___80___ of brown or yellow. The World Book Encyclopedia reports that "the discolored areas may range from ___81___ a few square yards to more than 2, 600 square kilometers. "

What causes such discoloration? Red tides are generally caused by several ___82___ of single—celled organisms. These tiny organisms have hair—like projections which they use to ___83___ themselves in water. There are about 2, 000 varieties of these organisms, 30 of which carry poisonous ___84___. These minute organisms usually stay in warm waters with high content of salt.

A red tide occurs when there is a sudden and rapid ___85___ of these organisms. The concentration of these organisms may ___86___ to 50, 000, 000 per quart of water! Although scientists do not fully understand why this happens. It is known that these organisms ___87___ when certain conditions simultaneously affect the water. These include abnormal weather, ___88___ temperatures, an oversupply of nutrients in the water, a generous ___89___ sunlight, and favorable water currents. When a heavy rainfall occurs, minerals and other nutrients are sometimes washed ___90___ the land into coastal waters. These nutrients can contribute to the breeding of the organisms. The result? Red tides!

71. A. As a resultB. As it isC. As expected

72. A. satisfaction

73. A. ashore

74. A. question B. aboard B. crisis C. aside C. phenomenon D. As usual D. regret D. across D. situation

D. accused

D. aware of

D. reef areas

D. without

D. leads to

D. shapes

D. as little as

D. species

D. prompt

D. objects

D. blast

D. swell

D. accompany

D. momentum

D. account for B. disappointment C. astonishment75. A. occupied76. A. assured ofB. occurredC. acquired B. worried about C. concerned about 77. A. sandy beaches B. river mouths C. coastal areas78. A. except B. besidesC. despite 79. A. applies to80. A. shadows81. A, less than82. A. components 83. A. propel84. A. materials 85. A. bolt86. A. scale87. A. accelerate B. sums upB. shadesB. more thanB. elementsB. probeB. substances B. block B. plungeB. accommodate B. minimumB. amount ofC. copes with C. shakesC. as much as C. ingredients C. proceedC. massesC. bloomC. gaugeC. accumulate C. maximumC. way to 88. A. optimum89. A. means of

90. A. over B. on C. by D. from

Passage 4

With 950 million people, India ranks second to China among the most populous countries. But since China a family planning program in 1971, India has been closing the have reduced their birth rate but not nearly 73 the Chinese have. If current growth rates continue, India’s population will China’s around the year 2028about 1.7 billion. Should that happen, it won’t be the 76 of the enlightened women of Kerala, a state in southern India. 77 India as a whole adds almost 20 million people a year, Kerala’s population is virtually No mystery: nearly two-thirds of Kerala women practice birth control, nation.

The difference the emphasis put on health programs, birth control, by the state in 1957 became India’s first elected Communist and matrilineal(母系的) customs in parts of Kerala help girls and boys good schooling. Higher literacy rates Family planning. ―Unlike our Parents, we know that we can do more for our children if we have of them,‖ says Laila Cherian, 33, who lives in the Village of Kudamaloor. She has Limited herself —one below the national