首页 | 小学 | 初中 | 高中 | 作文 | 英语 | 幼教 | 综合 | 早知道 | 范文大全 |
趣味英语 当前位置:唯才网 > 英语 > 趣味英语 > 正文 唯才网手机站

英语句子类型

时间:2016-05-30 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:英语句子的种类

业余整理,宝贵资料不敢独享,望有志者共同进步

每一个单词都检查过,请放心使用

英语句子的种类 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 句子的种类 .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 陈述句 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.3 疑问句 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.4 祈使句 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

1.5 感叹句 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

1.6 there be结构 ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

1.7 否定结构 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

英语句子的种类

1.1 句子的种类

句子按其用途可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句四种。如:(1)The English have a wonderful sense of humor.英国人有一种奇妙的幽默感。(陈述句)(2)Who is your favorite author?谁是你喜爱的作家?(疑问句)(3)Don’t believe all the gossip you hear.别轻信听来的一切闲言碎语。(祈使句)(4)How kind you are!您真好啊!(感叹句)

1.2 陈述句

用以陈述事实或观点的句子叫做陈述句。(declarative sentence)。陈述句一般皆用降调,句末有句号。如:(1)The earth is one of several planets revolving round the sun.地球是绕太阳旋转的几个行星之一。(2)Jackson impressed me with his force and his kindness.杰史逊以他的力气和仁慈给我留下了深刻的印象。陈述句的词序一般是主语+谓语动词,或主语+连系动词+表语。如:(3)The river flooded.河水泛滥成灾了。(4)Martha is my flancee.玛莎是我的未婚妻。但是在某些情况下,主语和谓语动词可以倒装。如:(5)There exist different opinions on this question.关于这个问题有不同的观点。(there be结构)(6)”What is the matter with you?” asked the doctor.“你哪儿不好?”医生问。(直接引语之后)

(7)From the window came sounds of music.从窗户里传来了音乐声。(8)Here comes my brother.我弟弟来啦。(9)Never in my life have I seen such a thing.我一生中从未见过这样的事。(never位于句首)(10)Should need arise, we shall communicate with the again.如有需要,我们将同你联系。(条件从句省去了从属连词)陈述句分肯定结构和否定结构。肯定结构的谓语动词不含否定词。如:(11)People have five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.人有五种感觉:视觉、听觉、嗅觉、味觉和触觉。(12)Hamlet revenged his dead father.哈姆莱特为他死去的父亲报了仇。变肯定结构为否定结构时,将not置于第一个助动词或情态动词之后;现在一般时和过去一般时谓语动词不含助动词,则在动词前加do (does)或did再加not。如:(13)She has not been sleeping well recently.她近来睡得不大好。(14)He dared not speak.他不敢讲。(15)We usually do not stay late.我们一般不熬夜。在非正式文体中,否定结构常用缩略式。否定缩略式有两种:一种是助动词的缩略式+not;一种是助动词+not的缩略式。后者的语气似乎较前者强。如:(16)He’s not / isn’t / going to spend his summer vocation by the seaside.他不打算去海滨度暑假。(17)We’ll not / shan’t / see him till Monday.星期一以前我们不会见到他。(18)I don’t care what she thinks.我不关心她想什么。连系动词be的否定式与助动词be相同。如:

(19)He is not / He’s not / He isn’t / here yet.他还没有到。实义动词do的否定式与普通动词相同。如:(20)-What did you do on holiday?你们假日干什么了?-We didn’t do anything.我们什么也没干。实义动词have表“吃”等义时,其否定式与普通动词相同。如:(21)She does not / doesn’t / have coffee with breakfast.她早餐不喝咖啡。Have表“有”时,有两种否定式。如: 22)We do not / don’t / have any money.我们没有钱。

23)We have not / haven’t / any money.我们没有钱和。

在当代英语中,后者常为have got所代替。如:(24)I have not / haven’t / got a headache any longer.我不再患头痛病了。陈述句可用来表命令。如:(25)You will kindly do what you are told.请你按对你所说的做。陈述句亦可用来表疑问,句末有问号,用升调。如:(26)He’s waiting in the church?他在教堂等着吗?

1.3 疑问句

用以提问的句子叫做疑问句(interrogative sentence)。疑问句句末须用问号。疑问句有一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、附加疑问句、修辞疑问句、感叹疑问句、反问句七种。1)一般疑问句(general question),需要用肯定词yes或否定词no来回答,因此也叫是非疑问句(yes – no question)。这种疑问句句末多用升调,其基本结构为:助动词+主语+谓语,也就是说将陈述句的第一个助动词或情态动词提至主语之前。陈述句如不含助动词或情态动词,则在主语前加do(does)或did,回答常用简略答语。如:(1)-Have you locked the door?你锁门了吗?-Yes, I have.是的,锁了。-No, I haven’t.不,没有锁。(2)-Can Mary play the piano?玛丽会弹钢琴吗?-Yes, she can.是的,她会。-No, she can’t.不,她不会。(3)-Do you know Jack?你认识杰克吗?-Yes, I do.是的,我认识。-No, I don’t.不,我不认识。陈述句如属主+系+表结构,则将连系动词提至主语之前。如:(4)-Is John ill?约翰生病了吗?-Yes, he is.是的,他生病了。-No, he isn’t.不,他没有生病。have表“吃”等义时,与一般动词一样,须用助动词do。如:(5)-Did you have a good time in Japan?你们在日本过得好吗?-Yes, we certainly did.是的,确实很好。have表“有”时,则有两种结构。如:(6)-Have you (got) any sisters?你有姐妹吗?-No, I haven’t.不,没有。(7)-Do you have any sisters?你有姐妹吗?-No, I haven’t.不,没有。在一般疑问句的否定结构中,not一般置于主语之后;但在非正式英语中常用缩略式,即将-n’t与句首的助动词连在一起。回答一般疑问句的否定结构,应注意yes后接肯定结构,not后接否定结构,这与汉语习惯不同。如:(8)-Have you not read this book before?你以前没读过这本书吗?-Yes, I have.不,我读过。-No, I haven’t.是的,我没读过。(9)-Didn’t you speak to him yesterday?你昨天没对他说吗?-Yes, I did.不,我说了。-No, I didn’t.是的,我没说。一般疑问句的否定结构

往往用来表示提问人的惊讶、怀疑等。如:(10)Don’t you beleve me?你不相信我?(表惊讶)(11)Are you not coming?你不来吗?(表怀疑)回答一般疑问句除用yes和not外,也可用certainly, probably, perhaps, of course, all right, with pleasure等代替yes,用never, not at all等代替no。如:(12)-Can you help me?你能帮个忙吗?-Certainly.当然。(13)-Have you been there?你到过那里吗?-Never.从来没有。有时还可以用似乎与问题无关的话来回答。如:(14)-Are you going to watch TV again?你又要看电视?-What else is there to do?还有什么事可干呢? 2)特殊疑问句(special question),是用来对句子中某一特殊部分提问的疑问句。这种疑问句句末多用降调,一般以疑问词(疑问代词和疑问副词)开始。如:

(15)Who told you that?那是谁告诉你的?(16)Which books have you lent him?你借给了他哪些书。(17)Whose beautiful antiques are these?这是谁的漂亮的古董。(18)How wide did they make the bookcase?他们把书架做成多宽?(19)When will he arrive?他什么时间到?(20)Where did you get that ladder from?你从哪儿弄到那梯子的?(21)Why did you go this way?你为什么走了这条路?(22)How did you mend it?你是怎样修补的?(23)How much did you pay?你付了多少钱?

(24)How long have you been waiting?你等多久了?从以上例句可以看出,特殊疑问句使用的疑问词大多以wh开头,所以也叫wh-疑问句。从以上例句还可以看出,特殊疑问句的一般结构是:疑问词+一般疑问句,但提问主语部分的疑问句除外。提问主语部分的特殊疑问句采用陈述句的词序。如:(25)Who is reading a book at the window?谁在窗户下念书?(26)What is lying on the table?桌上放的是什么?提问修饰主语的定语时亦采用这种结构。如:(27)What you book is lying on the table?桌上放的是什么书?(28)Whose childen came here yesterday?谁的孩子昨天来这里了?(29)How many students work in the laboratory?实验室里有多少学生工作?特殊疑问句一般使用完全答语,即重复全部句子成分,但名词常由代词代替。如:(30)-When did the teacher read an interesting story to the students?什么时候教师给学生读了一个有趣的故事?-He read it to them yesterday.他是昨天给他们读的。当然亦可以只回答提问部分。如:(31)-What time does the next class begin?下节课什么时间开始?-At ten.十点。提问主语部分的疑问句一般使用简略答语,即用主语及谓语部分的助动词或情态动词。如:(32)-Who is standing at the window?谁站在窗户下?-My sister is.我妹妹。(33)-Who can do it?谁能做它?-I can.我能。(34)-Who gives you English lessons?谁给你们上英语课。-Professor Smith does.史密斯教授。当然亦可只回答主语。如:(35)-What book is lying on the table?桌上放的是什么书?-A French book.一本法语书。当疑问词作为“动词+介词”短语的宾语时,介词一般置于句末。如:(36)Where did you get that suit from?你从哪儿买到那套衣服的?如动词与介词已构成短语动词,则不可拆开。如:(37)What are you looking for?你在找什么?有些句子的介词必须位于句首。如:(37)What are you looking for?你在找什么?有些句子中的介词必须位于句首。如:(38)Since when have you lived here?你从什么时候起住在这里的?(39)On what grounds do you suspect him?你凭什么怀疑他?特殊疑问句的否定结构是将not置于主语之后。如:(40)Why did you not come yesterday?为什么你昨天没来?但非正式英语中常将not的缩略式-n’t与助动词或情态动词连写。如:(41)Who doesn’t know this rule?谁不知道这条规则?以why don’t you及其缩略式why not开头的疑问句常表建议或请求。如:(42)Why don’t you give me a hand?你帮我一下好吗?(43)Why not go by train?乘火车去不好吗?特殊疑问句有一些缩略结构。如:(44)How about (或what about) going to the pictures?去看电影怎么样?(45)Why leave the door open?干吗不关门?(46)Where to go?到哪儿去?(47)What if it rains?如果下雨怎么办?还有不少简略的说法,如what else?(还有什么?)So what?(那又怎么样?)What next?(还有比这更荒唐的吗?)What then?(下一步怎么办?)What by?(谁写的?)Which way?(走哪条路?)等。有时特殊疑问句可有一个以上的疑问词。如:(48)Which present did you give to whom?你把那一件礼物给了谁啦?(49)Who said what to whom?谁跟谁说什么啦?有时特殊疑问句可采用陈述句结构。如:(50)Your name is what?你的名字是什么?复合的特殊疑问句,常用来询问对方或第三者的想法或意见。这种疑问句由一般疑问句和特殊疑问句两种结构揉合而成。在这种复合结构中,特殊疑问句成了一般疑问句结构中的宾语。如:(51)What do you think is the best film of the year?你看今年的最佳影片是什么?(52)What did you say his name was?你刚才说的他的名字是什么?

3)选择疑问句(alternative question)是提供两种或两种以上的情况,供对方选择的。选择疑问句有两种:一种类似一般疑问句的形式,一种类似特殊疑问句的形式。第一种选择疑问句由两个或两个以上的一般疑问句构成,中间用or连接,后一个疑问句常用缩略式。如:(53)Shall we go by bus or (shall we go) by train?我们乘公共汽车去还是乘火车去?

(54)Do you like tea or (do you like) coffee?你喜欢茶还是咖啡?选择疑问句的第一句用升调,第二句用降调。如:(55)Shall we go by bus or train?我们乘公共汽车去还是乘火车去?(选择疑问句)如重音在句末,则为一般疑问句。如:(56)Shall we go by bus or train?(一般疑问句)这种选择疑问句形式上与一般疑问句相似,但内容却与特殊疑问句相似,因此不用yes或no回答,而且可以对句子的名个成分提问。如:(57)-Did you spend the summer in California or in Florida?你是在加利福尼亚还是在佛罗里达度的夏天?-I spent it in Florida.我在佛罗里达度夏天。(58)-Do you speak English or French?你说英语还是法语?-I speak English.我说英语。(59)-Is he resting or working?他在休息还是在工作?-He is working.他在工作。(60)-Are you a Democrat or a Republican?你是民主党人还是共和党人?-I am a Democrat.我是民主党人。在提问主语部分时,总是在第二个主语前助动词或情态动词,并用简略回答。如:(61)-Did you speak to them, or

did the manager?是你对他们说的,还是经理对他们说的?-The manager did.是经理对他们说的。(62)-Will you go there, or will your wife?是你去那儿,还是你妻子去?-My wife will.我妻子去。第二种选择疑问句由一个特殊疑问句加两个或两个以上的选择答案(用or连接)构成。如:(63)Who do you like best, Tom or Derek?你最喜欢谁,汤姆还是德里克?

(64)Which ice cream would you lik, chocolate, vanilla or strawberry?你喜欢什么样的冰淇淋,巧克力的、香草的还是草莓的?除了上述几种选择以外,还可用由not构成的是非选择。如:(65)Do you want to buy it or not?你想买它还是不想买它?(66)Are you ready or not?你准备好还是没有准备好?下面三种说法都是对的:(67)Are you coming or not?

(68)Are you coming or aren’t you (coming)?(重读第一个coming)(69)Are you or aren’t you coming?(重读are) 4)附加疑问句(tag question)是附陈述句之后,对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问。这种疑问句由助动词或情态动词加主语(常与陈述句的主语相同)构成,前有逗号,后有问号。附加疑问句的结构实际上是一种简略的一般疑问句,所以其答语一般须用yes或no。附加疑问句常常是反意的,所以也叫反意疑问句。陈述句如是肯定结构,其后的附加疑问句用否定结构;反之,陈述句如是否定结构,其后的附加疑问句则用肯定结构。附加疑问句的主语须用代词。如:

(70)-Your sister hasn’t returned from San Francisco yet, has she?你妹妹还没从旧金山回来,是吗?-Yes, she has.不,她回来了。-No she hasn’t.是的,她还没回来。(71)-We were late, weren’t we?我们晚,不是吗?-Yes, we were.是的,我们晚了。-No, we weren’t.不,我们没有晚。(72)-Mickey can’t speak Russian, can he?米基不会说俄语,对吗?-Yes, he can.不,他会说。-No, he can’t.是的,他不会说。如陈述句无be或助动词或情态动词,附加疑问句则用助动词do (does)或did。如:(73)-John likes tea, doesn’t he?约翰喜欢喝茶,不是吗?-Yes, he does.是的,他喜欢喝。-No, he doesn’t.不,他不喜欢。(74)-She told you, didn’t she?她告诉你了,不是吗?-Yes, she did.是的,她告诉了。-No, she didn’t.不,她没有告诉。在正式文体中,否定附加疑问句不用缩略式,not应置于主语之后。如:(75)She knows you, does she not?她认识你,不是吗?陈述句中的hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom亦表否定,故其的一的附加疑问句应用肯定结构。如:(76)You hardly know her, do you?你几乎不认识她,对吗?(77)He seldom goes out, does he?他很少外出,对吗?附加疑问句因音调不同,其含义亦有所不同。陈述句总是用降调,而附加疑问句既可升调亦可用降调。用升调时希望对方对陈述句内容的真实性作出自己的判断,而说话人不带任何倾向性。如:(78)He likes his jòb, dóesn’t he?你喜欢他的工作,不是吗?(79)He doesn’t like his jòb, dóes he?他不喜欢他的工作,是吗?用降调时则希望对方对陈述句的内容加以证实,说话人有明显的倾向性,即支持陈述句的内容。如:(80)He likes his jòb, dóesn’t he?他喜欢他的工作,不是吗?(希望对方回答:Yes, he does)(81)He doesn’t like his jòb, dòes he?他不喜欢他的工作,是吗?(希望对方回答:No, he doesn’t)否定陈述句后接肯定附加疑问句时,有时表示请求或询问。如:(82)You couldn’t give me a lift, could you?你可以让我搭你的车吧?(请求)(83)I’m not on the wrong train, am I?我没有坐错火车吗,我坐错了吗?(询问)还有一种附加疑问句并不表反意,陈述句与其后的附加疑问句可以都是肯定结构。这种附加疑问句用升调,常表示一种回忆或推断,有时带有惊讶、愤怒、讥讽等感情色彩。如:(84)You’ve had an accident, have you?你遭到一次事故,是吧?(重复已说过的话)(85)Your car is outside, is it?你的汽车停在外面,是吧?(表推断)(86)So he likes his job does he?那么他喜欢他的工作,是吗?(表惊讶)(87)Oh, you’ve had another accident, have you?噢,你又出事故啦,是吗?(表惊讶)(88)So that’s your game, is it?原来那就是你的把戏,是吗?(表讥讽)附加疑问句有时可用eh? right? am I right? don’t you think? isn’t that so?等。如:(89)She didn’t pass the exam, eh?她没有通过考试,呃?(90)They forgot to attend the lecture, am I right?他们忘记去了那一次课了,对不对?说话人有时可用附加疑问句和对方对话,表示同意、惊讶等。如:(91)-Their daughter is very clever.他们的女儿很聪明。-(Yes,) isn’t she?可不是。(用降调,表同意)(92)-They’re moving to Now York.他们要迁到纽约去。-Are they?是吗?(用升调,表惊讶) 5)修辞疑问句(rhetorical question)是为了取得一种修辞上的效果而提出的,它实际上相当于陈述句,不需要回答,但肯定结构表否定,否定结构表肯定。这种疑问句如属一般疑问句,用升调;如属特殊疑问句,则用降调。如:(93)What more do you want?你还想要什么呢?(意即你不应再想要什么了,应知足了)(94)Is it important?这事对你有关紧要吗?(意即对你无关紧要,何必问呢?)

(95)What do I care?关我什么事?(意即我才不在乎呢)(96)Who doesn’t know?谁不知道?(意即谁都知道)(97)Haven’t you got anything better to do?你难道没有更值得的事可做吗?(意即当然有) 6)感叹疑问句(exclamatory question)的形式虽是疑问句,实际是表感叹。肯定与否定结构皆可用。句末用感叹句。如:(98)Am I hungry!我当然饿!(99)Hasn’t she grown!她成长得多快!(但如说Has she not grown?则是一般疑问句,问她长大了吗?亦可用肯定结构说Has she grown!但每个词皆重读,其意=She has grown!) 7)反问句(echo ques

英语句子类型

tion)要求对方肯定或解释所说过的话。这种疑问句往往重复对方的话,或提出特殊疑问,句末用升调。如:(100)-I’m going to town.我要进城去。-To town?进城?-Yes.是的。(101)-Have you borrowed my pen?你借我的钢笔了吗?-(Have I) borrowed your pen?借你的钢笔。(102)-It cost five dollars.它的价是五美元。-How much did it cost?它的价是多少?-Five dollars.五美元。(103)-Take a look at this.你看看这个吧。-Take a look at what?看什么呀?

1.4 祈使句

用以表示请求、命令、劝告、建议等的句子叫做祈使句(imperative sentence)。祈使句的结构与陈述句一样,但主语常省略。祈使句一般没有时态的变化,也不能与情态动词连用。祈使句的主语常为第二人称you。谓语用动词原形,否定结构用don’t加动词原形。句子末尾用句号或感叹号,通常用降调。如:(1)Put those things back in their places.把那些东西放回原处。(2)Look out! there’s a car coming.当心!有车来了。(3)Don’t touch me!不要碰我!(4)Sit up straight, children! Don’t lean over the table.坐直,孩子们!别靠在桌子上。祈使句后面可用附加疑问句,以加强语气。如:(5)Fetch me a chair, won’t you?请给我拿把椅子来,好吗?(附加疑问句为否定结构,祈使句为肯定结构,用升调)(6)Come here, will you?请这边来。(附加疑问句与祈使句均为肯定结构,用降调)祈使句表请求时应加please。如:(7)Come in, please.请进来。祈使句可用被动式,但多属否定结构。如:(8)Don’t be decdived by his look.不要被他的外貌所欺骗。(否定结构)用get代替be时,则可有肯定结构。如:(9)Get washed.洗一洗吧。(10)Get dressed.穿好衣服吧。祈使句偶尔也用进行式和完成式。如:(11)Be listening to this station at the same time tomorrow night.请于明晚同一时间收听本台的广播。(12)Start the book and have finished it before you go to bed.开始读这本书吧,要在睡觉前把它读完。祈使句如需要强调对方时,亦可表出主语you。如:(13)You be quiet!你安静!用否定结构时,don’t一般置于句首即主语之前。如:(14)Don’t you open the door.你不要开门。祈使句亦可用第三人称作主语。如:(15)Somebody open the door.来个人把门打开。(16)Parents with children go to the front.带孩子的家长到前面去。(17)Men in the front row take one step forward.前排的士兵向前一步走。用第三人称的带主语的祈使句否定结构与第二人称的带主语的祈使句否定结构一样。don’t须置于主语之前。如:(18)Don’t anyone open the door.谁也别开门。用第三人称的祈使句还可加谓语动词let。如:(19)Let him be here by ten o’clock.让他十点前到这里来。(20)Let no one think that a teacher’s life is easy.不要让人认为教师生活是轻松的。这种祈使句的否定结构亦须加don’t。如:(21)Don’t let the baby fall.别让婴孩掉下来。let也常用于第一人称,let me表单数,let us (let’s)表复数。如:(22)Let me try.让我试试。(23)Let us have something iced to drink.让我们喝点冷饮。在口语中,let’s有时也可表单数。如:(24)Let’s give you a hand.让我帮帮你。这种用let的祈使句的否定结构一般由let及人称代词加not构成。如:(25)Let us not talk of that matter.让我们别谈那件事吧。(26)Let us not say anything about it.关于那件事,让我们什么也别说。在非正式英语中,常用don’t构成否定结构。如:(27)Don’t let’s say anything about it.(英国英语)(28)Let’s don’t say anything about it.(美国英语)在肯定祈使句之前可用助动词do以加强语气,但这种结构只用于第一人称祈使句和第二人称无主语的祈使句。如:(29)Do be quiet a moment.一定要安静一会儿。(30)Do let me do.一定让我去吧。祈使句除用谓语动词表示外,还可用名词、形容词、副词等表示。如:(31)Help!救人哟!(32)Patience!要有耐心!(33)Quickly!快!(34)Hands up!举起手来!

1.5 感叹句

用以表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情的句子叫做感叹句。感叹句句末常感叹号,亦可用句号,一般用降调。感叹句的构成方法有三种。1)陈述句、疑问句只要改变原来的音调(即变为降调)即可构成感叹句。如:(1)The house is on fire!房子着火啦!(2)Mother, aunt is coming!妈妈,姑妈来啦!(3)Have you ever seen such a thing?!你曾见过这种事吗?!

(4)Would you believe it! The servant’s broken another dish.你信吗,仆人又打碎了一只盘子!(5)Stop probing!不要盘 根问底了! 2)将感叹词what或how及它所修饰的词置于句首,即可构成感叹句。how后接形容词和副词,what后接名词,主谓词序不倒装。如:(6)How blue the sky is!天空多蓝呀!(7)How clever he is!他多聪明呀!(8)How quickly you walk!你走得多快呀!(9)How well you look!你气色多好呀!(10)What a foolish mistake I have made!我犯了一个多么愚蠢的错误呀!how修饰动词时动词不提前。如:(12)How she sings!她唱得多好呀!(13)How he snores!他的鼾声真大呀!在感叹句中,what a用来修饰单形可数名词,what则用来修饰复形可数名词和不可数名词。如:(14)What a tall boy he is!他是一个多高的男孩子啊!(15)What foolish mistakes you have made!你犯了多么愚蠢的错误啊!(16)What cold water you have brought me!你给我拿来的水多凉啊!有的不可数名词也可用what a。如:(17)What a mess we’re in!我们这儿多乱啊!要注意区分强调的是形容词还是名词。强调形容词时用how,强调名词时用what。如:(18)What a fine building that is!那是一幢多么漂亮的建筑物啊!(19)How empty and pdeantic a thinker he is!他是一个多么空虚而迂腐的思想家! 3)单词或短语均可构成感叹句(省去其它句子成分)。如:(20)Fire!着火啦!(21)Good heavens!天哪!(22)Listen! The cuckoo, Jon!听啊!是布谷鸟,乔恩!(23)The scent of lime flowers!菩提花真香啊!(24)What a hot day!多么炎热的一天啊!(25)How wonderful!多妙啊!

1.6 there be结构

there be结构在英语里是一种常见的句子结构。它以引词there开始,后常接动词be的各种形式,再后才是主语,主语之后又常有表时间和地点的状语。它像是一种倒装句,但它已变成为一种自然的词序。这种结构中的there本身无词义,常弱读作/??/,其后的动词be具有“存在”之义,所以是一实义动词。如:(1)There is a telephone in that room.那间屋子里有一部电话。(2)There are many apple trees in the garden.花园里有许多苹果树。(3)There was a symphony concert last night.昨晚有一场交响音乐会。there be结构中的主语一般皆指不确定的事物。如:(4)There is a lamp on the

篇二:英语中句子的种类

(三)句子的种类

句子是一个独立的语言单位,表示一个完整的思想。按使用目的可分为陈述句、感叹句、疑问句和祈使句;从结构上又可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。

按使用目的分:

一、陈述句

That boy always helps others.

Tom was not at home yesterday.

He is too late to catch the bus.

二、疑问句(一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句)

Are you a doctor?

How often do you have an English party?

Which would you like better, tea or coffee?

She is too young to go to school, is she?

三、感叹句

(一) What +a /an+形容词+可数名词的单数形式+主语+谓语!==(二)How+形容词+a/an +

可数名词的单数形式+主语+谓语!

What a beautiful girl she is! == How beautiful a girl she is!

(三) What+形容词+可数名词的复数+主语+谓语!

What beautiful girls they are!

(四) What+形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语!

What fine weather it is!

(五) How+形容词或副词+主语+谓语!

How interesting the dog is!

(六) How+主语+谓语!

How time flies!

四、祈使句(祈使句主语通常被省略,谓语动词用原型。)

Be quiet!

Don’t be late!

从结构上分:

一、简单句(句子只包含一个主谓结构。)

He is never late for school.

二、并列句(句子包含两个或多个主谓结构,通常有并列连词连结。)

She made a promise, but she didn’t keep it.

Tom is tall and he is from America.

He is later for school because his bike is broken.

He not only works hard but also is always ready to help others.

三、复合句(句子包含有两个或更多的主谓结构,但是其中一个或多个主谓结构充当句子的成分,就是复合句。所有从句都是复合句。)

This is the book that I borrowed yesterday.

He told us that light travels faster than sound.

专项练习:

一、分析下列句子的句子结构

1. we are working.。

2. I can swim very well.

3. The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me.

4. Why does the wind blow.

5. The rain has been pulling down for a whole day.

6. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.

7. Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone.

8. You must get the car ready by tomorrow.

9. I have a lot of clothes to wash.

10. He gave his son some advice on reading.

二、提升训练

1. ---Who is the man over there? It can’t be Li Lei, ____?

--- ____ . It must be John. I saw Li Lei in the classroom just now.

A. is it; Yes, it is B. can it; No, it can’t beC. can it; Yes, it must be D. is it; No, it isn’t

2. ---____ didn’t you go to school today?

---Because my mother was ill.

A. WhereB. WhenC. Why D. How

3. ____from here to your home!

A. How long way it isB. What a long way is it

C. How long way is itD. What a long way it is

4. Don’t be discouraged. _____things as they are and you will enjoy every day of your life.

A. TakingB. To take C. TakeD. Taken

5. ____has the children burdened with too much homework nowadays?

A. It is who that B. Who is it thatC. It was who that D. Who was it that

6. ——I’d like to, but…

——____come please!

A. DoB. Can C. MayD. Did

7.____role she played in the film! No wonder she has won an Oscar.

A. How interestingB. How an interesting C. What interestingD. What an interesting

篇三:英语基本句子类型

一、简单句型两大类

为了方便大家记忆,我们将简单句的五种基本句型分为了两大类:

1. 主语+系动词+表语 (表特征)

例:The U.S. is no longer No. 1. 美国不再是老大。

2. 主语+谓语+[其它] (表动作)

例:China takes off. 中国腾飞了。

China held the two sessions. 中国举行了两会。

? 表特征与表动作的对比:

The window is open. 窗户是开着的。(表特征)

He opened the window. 他开窗户。(表动作)

House price is sky-high. 房价特高。(表特征)

House price increased a lot. 房价涨了很多。(表动作)

二、五种基本句型1~3

1. 主语+系动词+表语(SVP)

That sounds good. 听起来不错。

功能:不表示具体动作,表示主语的特点或者性质特征,所以也叫主语补足语。 ? 常用系动词:

* 纯系动词(只能做系动词):be, become, seem。

例:I am a lunatic. 我是个神经病。

Google becomes one of the most admired companies. Google成为最受人敬仰的公司之一。

a. 感官动词:look, feel, smell, taste, sound等。

例:Ipad2 looks gorgeous! Ipad2看起来很炫!

b. 表示“变化”:get, grow, turn, go, run等。

例:My face turned red. 脸变红了。

c. 实义词词义基本没有变化的:stay, lie, stand(位于), fall, prove等。

例:They fall in love. 他们陷入爱河。

Tips:

a. 副词一般不做表语

That sounds good. √

That sounds well. ×

通常可做表语的有形容词、名词和其它短语。

be, become后面可以直接跟名词做表语,但是其它的通常还要加介词,例:

He looks like a monkey. 他长得像只猴子。

b. of + 名词

It is of + 名词,意思等同于it is + 该名词的形容词形式,是很地道的说法。

例:This book is of great help to me. 这本书对我很有帮助。= This book is greatly helpful to me.

c. 很多系动词也可以做实义动词

It tastes delicious. 尝起来很美味。(做系动词)

It tastes of lemon. 尝起来像柠檬。(做系动词)

He tasted the lemon. 他尝了点柠檬。(做实义动词)

补充:系动词一般不用现在进行时

He looks young. √

He is looking young. ×

2. 主语+谓语(SV)

? 及物动词与不及物动词:

及物动词:transitive 不及物动词:intransitive

区别:可否直接跟宾语

动词可分为三类:及物,不及物,及不及物(有时及物有时不及物)

They are playing.(不及物)

They are playing basketball.(及物)

SV句型中的V是不及物动词,例句:

Bird flies. 鸟会飞。

It rained yesterday. 昨天下雨了。

People suffered. 人民遭难了。

Tips:

a. 没有宾语但是可以跟其他对象,通常为副词或介词短语,作状语 (介词短语) (副词)

b. 系动词和谓语动词的区别 说明主语的特征。 修饰动作,作状语。

3. 主语+谓语+宾语(SVO)

SVO句型中的V是及物动词,例句:

Oil hits its highest price since September 2008. 油价自2008年9月以来涨到了新高。

Premier Wen Jiabao made a report on the work of the government. 温家宝总理进行了政府工作报告。

Beijing imposed house purchase restriction policy. 北京发布限购令政策