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大专英语b级考试2016

时间:2016-06-15 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:2015-2016年职称英语考试理工类B级新增文章及译文

Real World Robots ............................................................................................................................ 1

When Our Eyes Serve Our Stomach ................................................................................................. 2

Musical Robot Companion Enhances Listener Experience .............................................................. 3

Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright .......................................................... 5

Giant Structures................................................................................................................................. 6

Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures ................................................................................................ 8

Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More Light ..................................................................... 9

What Is a Dream? ............................................................................................................................ 10

The Biology of Music ..................................................................................................................... 12

The Apgar Test ................................................................................................................................ 13

Ice Cream Taster Has Sweet Job ..................................................................................................... 14

Real World Robots .......................................................................................................................... 16

Lightening Strikes ........................................................................................................................... 17

Real World Robots

When you think of a robot, do you envision a shiny, metallic device having the same general shape as a human being, performing humanlike functions, and responding to your questions in a monotone voice accentuated by high-pitched tones and beeps? This is the way many of us imagine a robot, but in the real world, a robot is not humanoid at all. Instead a robot often is a voiceless, box-shaped machine that efficiently carries out repetitive or dangerous functions usually

performed by humans. Today’s robot is more than an automatic machine that performs one task again and again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees of artificial

intelligence—that is, a robot contains a computer program that tells it how to perform tasks associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, and learning from past experience.

A robot does not possess a human shape for the simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remaining balanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels and axles that roll and rotate. A robot even has limbs that swivel and move in combination with joints and motors. To find its way in its surroundings1, a robot utilizes various built-in sensors. Antennae attached to the robot’s base detect anything they bump into. If the robot starts to teeter as it moves on an incline, a gyroscope or a pendulum inside it senses the vertical differential. To determine its distance from an object and how quickly it will reach the object,the robot bounces beams of laser light and ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path2. These and other sensors constantly feed information to the computer, which then analyzes the information and corrects or adjusts the robot’s actions. As science and technology advance, the robot too will progress in its functions and use of artificial-intelligence programs.

当你想到机器人的时候,你脑海中浮现的是不是一个有着大致人类轮廓的、能够发挥像人类一样的功能,并且能用夹着高音的单调音调回答你的问题的有光泽的金属装置?很多人想象中的机器人都是这个样子的,但是,在现实世界中,机器人和人类长得一点都不像。与之相反,机器人通常是一个不会说话的盒子状机器,能够代替人类高效率地完成一些重复性的或

者危险的工作。

现在的机器人不仅仅是一台能够重复同一任务的自动工具,而是具有不同程度的人工智能,也就是说,机器人内置了一个计算机程序,能够指导机器人完成与人类智能有关的任务,比如推理、得出结论,以及从过去的经验中学习。

机器人不具备人形的原因是,如果机器人有两条腿的话,保持平衡会很困难。机器人的移动主要依靠轮轴结构旋转来实现。有的机器人甚至还能够通过接合点和发动机旋转和移动的臂。机器人依靠多种内置的感觉器来帮助寻找路径。连接在机器人底部的天线能够探测到机器人撞到的任何物体。

在斜坡上移动的时候,如果机器人开始摇晃,机器人内部的陀螺仪和钟摆仪就会探测到水平方向的变化。机器人探测自己与其他物体的距离以及到达该物体的时间的方法是发射激光束和超声波,通过反射的信号来判断这些信息。

这些探测器不断地向计算机提供信息,计算机将这些信息进行分析,从而纠正或调整机器人的进一步动作。随着科技的进步,机器人也会在功能和人工智能程序等方面上取得发展。

When Our Eyes Serve Our Stomach

Our senses aren’t just delivering 汪 strict view of what’s going on in the world; they’re affected by what’s going on in our heads. A new study finds that hungry people see food-related words more clearly than people who’ve just eaten.

Psychologists have known for decades that what’s going on,inside our head affects our senses. For example, poorer children think coins are larger than they are, and hungry people think pictures of food are brighter. Remi Radel of University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis,France,wanted to investigate how this happens. Does it happen right away as the brain receives signals from the eyes or a little later as the brain’s high-level thinking processes get involved.

Radel recruited 42 students with a normal body mass index. On the day of his or her test, each student was told to arrive at the lab at noon after three or four hours of not eating. Then they were told there was a delay. Some were told to come back in 10 minutes; others were given an hour to get lunch first. So half the students were hungry when they did the experiment and the other half had just eaten.

For the experiment, the participant looked at a computer screen. One by one, 80 words

flashed on the screen for about l/300th of a second each. They flashed at so small a size that the students could only consciously perceive. A quarter of the words were food-related. After each word,each person was asked how bright the word was and asked to choose which of two words they’d seen — a food-related word like cake or a neutral word like boat. Each word appeared too briefly for the participant to really read it.

Hungry people saw the food-related words as brighter and were better at identifying food- related words. Because the word appeared too quickly for them to be reliably seen, this means that the difference is in perception ,not in thinking processes, Radel says.

“This is something great to me. Humans can really perceive what they need or what they strive for. From the experiment, I know that our brain can really be at the disposal of our motives and needs,” Radel says.

我们的视觉服务于我们的胃口

我们的五官不仅仅让我们感知世界;还受大脑活动的影响。一项新研究发现:比起那些刚刚用过餐的人,饥饿的人能更清晰地看到与食品有关的词。

数十年以来,心理学家已经知道我们的心理活动直接影响到我们的视觉。例如,贫穷的孩子看到的硬币比实际的要大;饥饿的人看到的食物图片更明亮。法国的尼斯?索菲亚?安提波利斯大学试图调查这一现象:发生这种情况的时间是在大脑从眼睛接收到视觉信号的即时还是稍后些,这时高级思维活动已经介入了。

雷戴尔招募了健康指数正常的42位学生作为被试者。在测试的当天,每个学生被告知在中午到达实验室,这时距上一次的用餐时间有3?4个小时。等他们到达实验室时,他们被告知实验时间有延迟。一半学生被告知十分钟后再回来;其余的给1个小时的时间先吃午饭。所以一半学生饿着肚子,另一半学生饱腹参加了此次实验。

实验的步骤如下:要求被试者看电脑屏幕。屏幕上的80个字以1/300秒的频率闪动。由于字体非常之小,被试者只能凭感觉捕捉到字形。1/4的字是与食物有关的。每闪动一个字,被试者回答字体的亮度并选择看到的是哪类词:一类是和食物有关的词,比如“蛋糕”;一类是中性词,比如“船”。由于每个词的闪动在瞬间完成,被试者根本看不清楚那个词是什么。

饥饿的人看到与食物有关的词更明亮,且能更好地辨认出与食物有关的词。由于每个词的闪动太快,其实那些被试者根本不会确切地看到什么,这就说明:他们只是感觉不同,根本没经过思考。雷戴尔给出了这样的解释。

雷戴尔说:“这就是重点所在。人类可以真正感知到自身的需要或者为之奋斗的目标。该实验使我了解这样的事实,即我们的大脑是受我们的动机和需要所支配的。

Musical Robot Companion Enhances Listener Experience

Shimi, a musical companion developed by Georgia Tech’s Center for Music Technology, recommends songs, dances to the beat and keeps the music pumping based on listener feedback. The smartphone-enabled, one-foot-tall robot is billed as an interactive “musical friend”.

“Shimi is designed to change the way that people enjoy and think about their music,” said Professor Gil Weinberg, the robot’s creator. He will unveil the robot at the June 27th Google I/O conference in San Francisco. A band of three Shimi robots will perform for guests, dancing in sync with music created in the lab and composed according to its movements.

Shimi is essentially a docking station with a “brain” powered by an Android phone. Once

docked, the robot gains the sensing and musical generation capabilities of the user’s mobile device. In other words, if there’s an “app” for that, Shimi is ready. For instance, by using the phone’s camera and face-detecting software,Shimi can follow a listener around the room and position its “ears”,or speakers, for optimal sound. Another recognition feature is based on rhythm and tempo. If the user taps a beat, Shimi analyzes it, scans the phone’s musical library and immediately plays the song that best matches the suggestion. Once the music starts,Shimi dances to the rhythm.

“Many people think that robots are limited by their programming instructions, said Music Technology Ph. D. candidate Mason Bretan. “Shimi shows us that robots can be creative and interactive. ’’Future apps in the works will allow the user to shake their head in disagreement or wave a hand in the air to alert Shimi to skip to the next song or increase/decrease the volume. The robot will also have the capability to recommend new music based on the user’s song choices and provide feedback on the music play list.

Weinberg hopes other developers will be inspired to create more apps to expand Shimi’s creative and interactive capabilities. “I believe that our center is ahead of a revolution that will see more robots in homes.” Weinberg said.

Weinberg is in the process of commercializing Shimi through an exclusive licensing

agreement with Georgia Tech. Weinberg hopes to make the robot available to consumers by the 2013 holiday season. “If robots are going to arrive in homes, we think that they will be this kind of machines一 small, entertaining and fun,,,Weinberg said. “They will enhance your life and pave the way for more intelligent service robots in our lives.”

音乐机器人伴侣提升音乐欣赏体验

Shimi是由佐治亚理工大学音乐技术中心研发的一款音乐伴侣。它可以根据听者的反馈推荐合乎节拍的歌曲、舞蹈;并且不断播放音乐。这款髙1英尺的机器人是由智能手机系统支持的,因此被标榜为“一个可以互动的音乐朋友”。

Gil Weinberg教授是该机器人的发明者,他解释说:“Shimi设计的宗旨是改变人们欣赏音乐、认识音乐的方式。”他将在今年6月27日在旧金山的谷歌I/O大会上展示这款机器人。一个由三个机器人组成的乐队将为来宾演奏,并伴随音乐起舞。而音乐是根据不同的运动形式编制的。

Shimi实际上是一个扩充基座,它的“大脑”由安卓手机控制。一旦连接上,机器人便从用户的移动装置获得传感和音乐生成能力。换言之,只要有应用程序,机器人便能使用。例如,通过手机的照相机和辨认脸型的软件,Shimi就能在房间周围跟踪到听众,然后安置好它的“耳朵”或扬声器,以确保输送最佳声音。另外一种识别特征是基于节奏和速度。如果用户打出某个(音乐)拍子,Shimi会对此进行分析,然后浏览手机的音乐库,并立即演奏最符合要求的音乐。一旦音乐响起来,Shimi就随韵律起舞。

“许多人认为机器人受到程序指令的限制,而Shiini给我们展示了机器人可以具有创造力和与人交互的能力。”音乐技术博士研究生Mason Bretan如是说。正在研发中的程序将使用户能沟通过摇头或摆手表示不同意,来提醒Shimi跳到下一首歌或增减音量。机器人还可根据用户对歌曲的选择推荐新音乐,并对音乐播放列表提供反馈。

Weinberg希望其他研发者会因此获得灵感,开发更多的应用程序,来扩展Shimi的创新和交互功能。他说:“我认为我们中心正在引领这场将更多机器人应用到家庭中去的变革。”

Weinberg正在通过获得佐治亚理工学院的独家授权来对Shimi进行商业推广。Weinberg希望到2013年的节日季消费者可购买到Shimi。Weinberg说:“如果机器人进入家庭,我们认为就应该是这种类型的机器人:小巧、令人愉快和有趣,它们能提高我们的生活质量,为更多智能服务型机器人进人我们的生活做好准备。

Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright

Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day. These are seemingly simple

activities that the majority of us don’t question. But an international team of researchers, including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce, high- quality resources. The team of researchers from the U. S., England, Japan and Portugal

investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape — one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees — to walk on two legs.

“These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs, ",said Dr. Richmond.

The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource. Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time,intense bursts of bipedal activity may have led to anatomical changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.

Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University’s “ outdoor laboratory ” in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest.

Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut — the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available, and the coula nut, which is not. The chimpanzees’ behavior was monitored in three situations:(a) when only oil palm nuts were

available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c) when coula nuts were the majority available resource.

When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers, the chimpanzees transported more at one time. Similarly, when coula nuts were the majority resource, the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.

In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource, but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available 一 even their mouths.

The second study, by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University, was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding, a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable Resources. Here, 35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement, and once again, this behav

大专英语b级考试2016

ior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time.

研究人员发现人类开始直立行走的原因

篇二:2016年职称英语.理工B考试真题及答案

2016年职称英语.理工B考试真题及答案

一:词汇选项

1.【题干】The revelation of his past led to his resignation.

【选项】

A.imagination

B.disclosure

C.confirmation

D.recall

【答案】B

2.【题干】Jensen is dangerous man, and can be very brutal.

【选项】

A.careless

B.cruel

C.strong

D.hard

【答案】B

3.【题干】You'll have to sprint if you want to catch the train.

【选项】

A.jump

B.escape

C.run

D.prepare

【答案】C

4.【题干】We are worried about this fluid situation full with uncertainty.

【选项】

A.changeble

B.stable

C.suitable

D.adaptable

【答案】A

5.【题干】The new garment fits her perfectly.

【选项】

A.haircut

B.purse

C.clothes

D.necklace

【答案】C

6.【题干】The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma.

【选项】

A.fear

B.joy

C.hurt

D.memory

【答案】C

7.【题干】They have built canals to irrigate the desert. 【选项】 A.decorate B.water C.change D.visit 【答案】B 8.【题干】Her overall language proficiency remains that of a toddler. 【选项】 A.disabled B.pupil C.teenager D.baby 【答案】D 9.【题干】The coastal area has very mild winter, but the central plains remain extremely cold. 【选项】 A.warm B.severe C.hard D.dry 【答案】A 10.【题干】The details of the costume were totally authentic. 【选项】 A.real B.outstanding C.creative D.false 【答案】A 11.【题干】We are aware of the potential problems. 【选项】 A.global B.possible C.ongoing D.central 【答案】B 12.【题干】The idea was quite brilliant. 【选项】 A.positive B.clever C.key D.original 【答案】B 13.【题干】Stock market price tumbled after rumor of a rise in interest rate. 【选项】

A.regulated

B.increased

C.maintained

D.fell

【答案】D

14.【题干】The course gives you basic instruction in car maintenance.

【选项】

A.coaching

B.idea

C.term

D.aspect

【答案】A

15.【题干】All houses within 100 meters of the seas are at risk of flooding.

【选项】

A.in danger

B.out of control

C.between equals

D.in particular

【答案】A

二、阅读判断

The Theory of Everyone

If Stephen Hawking lives until the year 2017, he will have lived more than 50 years longer than his doctors expected. When he was a college student, doctors discovered that he had a rare disease. This disease causes a gradual disintegration(分解)of the nerve cells in the brain cells that regulate voluntary muscle activity. Death almost always occurs within two or three years.

Today Stephen Hawking cannot walk or speak. He cannot move his arms or his head. He cannot taste or smell anything. And yet this man is Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, a position held by the famous scientist Isaac Newton in 1669.

Hawking is often described as the greatest scientist since Albert Einstein, but to the world outside science, he is also known as the man who made scientific theory understandable. His book,

A Brief History of Time, has sold over eight million copies.

He says that since he does not have to think about his body or do any of the things other men have to worry about, such as washing the car or working in the yard, he can dedicate all of his time to thinking. This puts him in the perfect position to find the answer to the question that he has dedicated his life to. His question is: Is there a complete theory of the universe and everything in it?

Despite his tremendous physical disabilities, he has already made some very important discoveries about the origin of the universe, how the universe holds together, and how it will probably end. He has also been able to explain the secrets of “black holes” in space. Now he is looking for a set of rules that everything in our universe must obey. He calls it the Theory of Everything. He thinks that someone will have found the answer within the next 20 years.

If Stephen Hawking is able to find his Theory of Everything, he will have given the world the opportunity to understand things that will change the whole nature of science and probably also the way we live.

16.【题干】Stephen Hawking will be 50 years old by 2017.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】B

If Stephen Hawking lives until the year 2017, he will have lived more than 50 years longer than his doctors expected.

17.【题干】Stephen Hawking suffers from a rare brain disease.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】A

18.【题干】Stephen Hawking is Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】A

19.【题干】A Brief History of Time is very difficult for students to understand.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】B

20.【题干】Stephen Hawking has much time to think because he doesn't have to work.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】A

21.【题干】Stephen Hawking has spent around ten years explaining the secrets of

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】C

22.【题干】The Theory of Everything is about the rules that everything in the universe follows.

A.Right

B.Wrong

C.Not mentioned

【答案】A

三、概括大意与完成句子

Geothermal(地热)Energy

1 Since heat naturally moves from hotter regions to cooler ones, the heat from the earth's center flows outwards towards the surface. In this way, it transfers to the next layer of rock. If the temperature is high enough, some of this rock melts and forms magma(岩浆). The magma ascends in its turn towards the earth's surface. It often remains well below the earth's surface, creating vast

areas of hot rock. In such regions, there are deep cracks, which allow rainwater to descend underground. Some of the heated rainwater travels back up to the earth's surface where it will appear as a hot spring. However, if this ascending hot water reaches a layer of impermeable(不可渗透的)rock, it remains trapped, forming a geothermal reservoir. If geothermal reservoirs are close enough to the surface, they can be reached by drilling wells. Hot water and steam shoot up the wells naturally, and can be used to produce electricity in geothermal power plants.

2.A few geothermal power plants depend on dry-stem reservoirs which produce steam but little or no water. In these cases, the steam is piped up directly to provide the power to spin a turbine generator. The first geothermal power plant, constructed at Lardarello in Italy, was of this type, and is still producing electricity today.

3.Most currently operating geothermal power plants are either "flash" steam plants or binary(双重的)plants. Flash plants produce mainly hot water ranging in temperature from 300° to 700°Fahrenheit. This water is passed through one or two separators where released from the pressure of the underground reservoir, it "flashes" or boils into steam Again, the force of this steam provides the energy to spin the turbine and produce electricity. The geothermal water and steam are then reinjected directly back down into the earth to maintain the volume and pressure of the reservoir. Gradually they will be reheated and can then be used again.

4.A reservoir with temperatures below 300° Fahrenheit is not hot enough to flash steam but it can still be used to generate electricity in binary fluid. The steam from this is used to power the turbines. As in the flash steam plant, the geothermal water is recycled back into the reservoir.

23.【题干】Paragraph1_____

【选项】

A.Dry steam plants

B.Binary plants

C.Origin of geothermal energy

D.Generation of electricity

E.Flash steam plants

F.Recyclable water and steam

【答案】C

24【题干】Paragraph2_____

【选项】

A.Dry steam plants

B.Binary plants

C.Origin of geothermal energy

D.Generation of electricity

E.Flash steam plants

F.Recyclable water and steam

【答案】A

25【题干】Paragraph3_____

【选项】

A.Dry steam plants

B.Binary plants

C.Origin of geothermal energy

D.Generation of electricity

篇三:最新2016职称英语理工类B级全部译文

第二部分:阅读判断

1、 Inventor of LEDLED的发明者 当Nick Holonyak着手用半导体合金创造一种新的可视照明设备的时候,同事们都认为他不现实。今天,他发现的发光二极管,或叫LED,使用范围覆盖从DVD到机场警钟的一切东西。他的许多学生继续着他的工作,发明了交通灯中使用的照明设备和其他日用技术。 2004年4月23日,Holonyak在华盛顿的一次典礼上被授予Lemelson-MIT项目的50万美元的奖金。这是麻省理工的Lemelson-MIT项目第十年颁奖给杰出的发明人。

“任何时候你得了奖,不论是大是小,总是一分惊喜。”Holonyak说。

Holonyak,75岁,是20世纪50年代初期晶体管的发明者John Bardeen的学生。从研究生院毕业之后,Holonyak在Bell实验室工作。之后去了通用电器公司,在那里他发明了一种开关,现在在家用减光开关中普遍使用。 后来,Holonyak开始研究何应用半导体发电。当他的同事们正在研究如何发出看不见的光时,他却想要看得见的光。1962年他发明的LED,现在的使用寿命可以比白炽灯泡长十倍,而且更环保、更经济。

Holonyak现在是伊利诺伊大学电子、计算机工程和物理专业的教授,他说他预料到LED的使用有可能像今天这样普遍,但没有意识到它会有多少用途。

“开始的时候你并不知道,你认为你在做一件很重要的事情,你认为它值得做,但是你不能说出要付出多大的代价,什么时候付出,怎样付出。你并不知道。”他说。 Lemelson-MIT项目同样授予75岁的Edith Flanigen 10万美元的终身成就奖,她的成就是创造新一代的“分子筛”,也就是可以通过大小来分离分子。

2、El Nino 厄尔尼诺

当某些预报方法不能提前几个月成功预测1997年厄尔尼诺现象的时候,哥伦比亚大学的研究人员说他们的方法可以提前两年预测厄尔尼诺现象。这对全世界各地的政府、农民和其他寻求为厄尔尼诺带来的干旱和大雨做准备的人来说是一条好消息。

研究人员使用计算机把1980年和2000年之间的海面温度和后来的厄尔尼诺的发生联系起来,进而能够用之前的海面温度预测远至1857年的厄尔尼诺现象。研究结果刊登在最新的《自然》杂志上。

研究人员说他们的方法并不完美,但加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的气象学家Bryan C. Weare说这种方法显示出厄尔尼诺是可以预测的,尽管他自己并没有参加研究工作。

Weare说:“这会促使其他人去寻找更好的办法。”他还补充说,新的方法“使在提前很长的一段时间里预测厄尔尼诺现象成为可能”。其他方法也使用海面温度,但他们没能回顾得那么久远是因为缺少其他资料,而这些资料在近几十年才能够获得。

预测太平洋的升温和降温有极其重要的意义。英国Reading的欧洲中级天气预报中心的

David Anderson说:以1997年的厄尔尼诺为例,它导致了全球范围内约200亿美元的损失,抵消了在其他一些地区的良性影响;1877年的厄尔尼诺与印度遭受的季风和饥荒同时发生,导致了印度和中国约4 000万人丧生,结果刺激了季节性预报的发展。

根据2002年的联合国报道,1991年和1997年厄尔尼诺爆发的时候,仅中国就有2亿人受到洪水的侵害。

然而小的厄尔尼诺预测还是难以捉摸的,如果新的方法被认可的话,对大型厄尔尼诺现象的预测至少应该被提前一年。

厄尔尼诺总是在4月和6月期间形成,在12月和翌年2月之间达到髙峰。气候总是在9月和12月之间变暧,并且每2 ~7年出现一次。

尽管气温在年底的时候有可能微弱上升,新的预测方法预计未来两年不会出现大的厄尔尼诺现象。

3.Smoking吸烟

自1939年以来,人们进行了无数次研究,以确定吸烟是否危害健康。证据的趋向是一致的, 并且显示出吸烟对健康有严重危害。研究组进行的研究超出了所有合理的怀疑,表明吸烟与人的 预期寿命的缩短有关。

这个领域的大部分研究人员都认为吸烟是肺癌和喉癌产生的重荽原因,并且和人体其他某些 器官的癌症有关。吸烟的男性因心脏病的死亡率禽于不吸烟的男性。女性吸烟者被认为受的影响 较小,因为她们不深吸烟。

除了统计之外,看一看吸烟对人体的作用也可能会有帮助。烟是各种气体、蒸发的化学物、 微小的灰和其他固体颗粒的混合物。里面还有很强的毒素尼古丁和黑焦油。当烟被玻入时,所有 这些成分形成肺膜上的沉淀物。集中的一点是气管和支气管分叉的地方。大部分肺癌开始于这 一点。

滤嘴和焦油含量低的烟草被宣称使抽烟在某种程度上安全一些,但是它们只能稍微降低危 害而不是消除危害。 4、Engineering Ethics工学程派道网德

工程道德在全美的工程类院校里越来越受到关注。在得克萨斯州的大学,随着工程道德这门新课的开设以及由全美科学基金会提供基金、旨在为大学工程类必修课程提供道德问题方面

[的材料的项目的启动,人们对职业道德的关注达到了顶峰。一个由教师和管理人员组成的小组对得克萨斯州A—大学的不懈努力予以了积极的支持,但是由于越来越多的学生希望能够更加了解作为职业工程人员自己的行为的价值含义,为了满足这些需求,目前该小组必须发展壮大。

人们之所以对工程价值尺度愈发关注,至少部分原因是由于媒体对挑战者号灾难、堪萨斯城Hyatt-Regency旅馆通道的坍塌以及Exxon石油泄漏等事件的关注所引起的。为了响应人们的关注,一个新的学科——工程道德应运而生。同医学道德、商业道德和法律道德这些已经确立的学I科一样,该学科无疑也将确立起自己的地位。

开发这一新学科所面临的问题是,大部分工程教授不愿意将工程道德方面的资料引进课堂。他们满足于使用以数字表达的概念,不相信自己有资格就工程道德问题在课堂上展开讨论。许多工程类教授认为课程安排紧张,没有时间在课堂上就职业道德问题进行讨论,或者觉得自己没有时间去准备必要的材料。希望这里提供的资料会有所帮助。

5、 Rescue Platform救学生派平网台

在世界贸易中心遭到恐怖袭击后,安全专家们正在努力寻找新方法,来从燃烧的摩天大楼上营救人们。其中的想法之一就是构建一个能够垂直升降并像直升机一样在空中盘旋的平台。该平台可沿摩天大楼上下移动,运送高楼受困人员。

十多年前,一名俄罗斯航空航天工程师David Metreveli酝酿出垂直起落平台这一想法,随后移居以色列。Metreveli的设计方案命名为“老鹰”,需用两个喷气发动机来推动四个大型水平方向旋转的螺旋推进器。螺旋推进器快速旋转,生成必要的上升力,使平台升起。供给螺旋推进器的能量越多,平台升得就越高。要使平台侧向移动,则需要给螺旋推进器添加不等的能量。

现在,人们有时还用直升机营救起火大楼中的被困人员。从直升机中拋出的救生篮在大楼旁摇摆,人们可以爬到里面去。不幸的是,由于悬挂救生篮的绳索在超出一定长度后就会非常不稳定,所以救生篮无法达到每一层楼。

目前,Metreveli已经建立起一个小型“老鹰”模型来检测自己的构思。“9·11”事件后,Metreveli获得了足够的基金,开始构建一个较大规模的模型。该模型大小为4米×4米,他将之命名为“小鹰”。

6、 Microchip Research Center Created微芯片研究中心成立

为了开发先进的微芯片生产技术,这个远东国家建立了一个研究中心,该中心启动资金为1 400万美元,可以帮助该国开发自己的芯片工业,不必总是依赖于进口技术。 该中心将会应用自己的研究技术和设施,为本国芯片厂家开发新技术。这个国家名列首位的芯片制造公司说,芯片中心的成立可能使这个国家摆脱从他国购买即将淘汰的技术的困境。由于许多外国政府担心先进技术会被用于军事目的,不允许这个国家的芯片生产厂家进口前沿技术,所以这些生产厂家处于一种被动局面。另外,由于这些芯片生产厂家必须向技术提者支付髙额的许可费,这也构成了他们决定要自力更生的一个重要原因。 由于主流芯片生产技术每隔3?5年就要进行更新换代,所以掌握了新技术的厂家就可以以较低的成本制造出较好的芯片,而那些耗费数十亿美元建立起的厂家,如果设备落后,也将会被生产商所淘汰。

十几个芯片厂正在建立之中,每个厂的造价都在几百万美元,其中大部分资金都流向了海外设备商和技术所有者——主要是日本和新加坡。如果新建的芯片中心能在改变该国芯片行业的被动形势中起到重要作用,该国承认,1 400万美元的投资仍是微不足道的。该国正在开发综合技术,大部分投资将用于与技术和知识产权所有者建立联盟。

7.Moderate Earthquake Strikes England中度地震袭击英国

2007年 4月 28日英格兰东南部地区发生中度地震,一些房屋烟囱倒塌,许多居民半夜从睡梦中惊醒。肯特郡几千人遭遇断电,一名女子头部和颈部受了轻伤。 “我感觉整个房子就像游乐场的滑行机一样在滑动。”该女子说。

英国地质调查局说,本次里氏 4.3级的地震发生于上午 8点 19分,震中在英吉利海峡底部,位于多佛尔以前约8.5英里处的海峡隧道入口附近。

一些目击者看到郡中墙壁现裂缝,并有烟囱倒塌。当地居民说震动大约持续了 10~15秒。

“我当时躺在床上,觉得好像旁边有人从床上站起来。 ”住在伦敦东南部60英里处的 27岁的 Hendrick van Eck说,“然后我听到有东西裂开的声音,而且越来越响。就好像有人在我床尾不停地并着脚跳。”

这种规模的中度地震世界上每年都会发生几千次,但在英国仍非常少见。 4月 28日的地震是英国自 2002 年中部城市伯明翰里氏 4.8级地震以来最强的一次。英国的地震最高曾达到里氏6.1级,1931年发生在北海。英国地质勘测所的科学家罗杰?马森说,4月28日发生地震的地区曾经遭受过几起英国最大的地震,其中的一次发生在 1580年,那次地震蹂躏了伦敦,并波及法国。马森预言了英格兰的这个地区早晚还会发生地震,但他说人们不必对此产生太大恐惧,因为英国的现代地震预警系统应该能够侦测即将发生的地震,并在震前数小时内通知大家。这将使人们有时间撤离震区,并把损失降到最低。

8. What Is a Dream? 梦是什么

几百年来,人们都对他们梦到的奇异的事情感到疑惑。一些心理学家认为,这种大脑的夜间活动并没有特殊含义,另一些人则认为,梦是生命重要的一部分。实际上,许多专家认为,梦能揭示人的心理和情感活动。近代以前,很多人认为梦传递的是上帝的信息。直到20世纪,人们才开始从科学的角度研究梦。奥地利心理学家西格蒙德?弗洛伊德或许是第一个用科学的方法研究梦的人。在他的著作《 梦的解析》(1900) 中,弗洛伊德写道,梦是一个人愿望的表达。他认为梦打开了一扇窗,让人们得以表达在生活中不敢表达

的情感、思想和恐惧。

瑞士精神病学家卡尔 ?荣格曾是弗洛伊德的学生,但他对梦的看法与弗洛伊德不同,他认为,梦的作用是给做梦的人传递一种信息,而人们通过自己的梦,可以对自己有一个更深刻的了解。比如,如果一个人梦到从高处坠落,那么他应该反思自己是不是自视过高。反过来,如果梦中自己成了英雄,应该想想平时可能太看低自己了。

现代心理学家还在继续发展关于梦的理论,来自位于圣克鲁兹的加利福尼亚大学的威廉? 多姆霍夫就是其中一位。他认为,梦境和一个人的日常生活、思想和行为都紧密相关,比方说,一个罪犯就可能梦到犯罪。

多姆霍夫还认为,梦和年龄也有关系。他的研究表明,孩子不像成人那么多梦。他认为,做梦也是一项心理机能,也随着年龄增长而发展。

多姆霍夫还发现梦和性别之间的关系。通过研究. 他发现男性和女性的梦境常常是不同的。例如,在男性梦境中出现的通常是其他男性,而且常与打斗有关,而女性的梦境则不是这样。多姆霍夫研究了全世界来自11种不同文化的古今案例,得出了上述结论。 梦能帮助我们更好地了解自己吗?心理学家还在尝试通过不同方式来解答这个问题,不过,有一件事他们是意见一致的:如果你梦到有不好的事要发生,不要慌张。梦确实有含义,但也不意味着你梦到的事真的会发生。要记住,梦中的世界并不是真实的世界。 9、 Dangers Await Babies with Altitude高海拔地区的婴儿有危险

一个新的研究表明,住在世界高海拔地区的女人通常生下体重不足的婴儿。这些婴儿在长大成人后得心脏病和中风的风险很大。

研究暗示在山区出生的新生儿低于平均体重。但是还不清楚这是由于在高海拔的地方氧气不足,还是由于他们的母亲没有获得足够的营养——许多住在高海拔地方的人相对都比住在低处的人穷。

为了了解更多的情况,剑桥大学的迪诺·吉萨尼和他的团队研究了1997年到1998年玻利维亚的400个新生儿的记录。这些婴儿出生于两个城市的富有和贫困地区:拉巴斯和圣克鲁斯。拉巴斯是世界上最髙的城市,海拔3. 65千米,而圣克鲁斯低很多,海拔0.44千米。

当然,吉萨尼发现拉巴斯的新生儿的平均出生体重明显低于圣克鲁斯的新生儿。无论高收入家庭还是低收入家庭都是如此。甚至圣克鲁斯的贫穷家庭的婴儿比拉巴斯的富有家庭的婴儿平均体重还要重。吉萨尼说:“我们对这个结果感到吃惊。”

这个结果表明在高海拔出生的婴儿出生前就缺氧了。吉萨尼说:“这可能会触发调节未出生儿成长的荷尔蒙的释放或抑制。”

他的团队还发现高海拔的婴儿通常有相对身体来说较大的头部。这可能是因为一个缺氧的胚胎会首先把充氧的血液输送到脑部,然后才送到身体的其他部位。

吉萨尼想要查出这样的婴儿在今后的生活中是不是更容易得病。例如在拉巴斯出生的人在成年之后更可能得心脏病。出生体重低是得冠心病的一个危险因素。头部相对身体较大的新生儿在今后的生活中通常更容易得高血压和中风。

10、The biology of music

音乐生物学

人们把音乐作为一种高效的交流方式,在爱情中它也可能会起到重要的作用。但是音乐 是什么?它又是如何起到神奇的效果?科学界还没有给出答案。

哪两项事物使得人类不同于动物?一个是语言,另一个是音乐。当然一些动物会唱歌(并 且许多鸟唱得比很多人都好听),但是,动物的歌声是有限的,比如鸟类和鲸鱼。同样,是 人类而不是动物开发出了乐器。

音乐是个奇怪的东西,它与语言有明显的不同。但是,人们能够用音乐去传达——尤其 是

情感。当音乐与歌曲中的语言结合在一起的时候,它就是一种强有力的表达方式。但是, 从生物学来讲,音乐是什么?

如果音乐与语言真的不同,那么我们应该在大脑的不同区域内对音乐和语言进行加工处 理,科学证据也证实了这一点。

有时,受过脑损伤的人会丧失他们处理语言的能力。但是,他们不会自动地丢失音乐才 能。比如,维沙翁?舍巴林,一位苏联作曲家,在1953 年得了中风。他的大脑的左半边受到 损害,他再也不能说话或是理解别人的话,但是他仍然能够谱曲,直到十年后他离开人世。 另一方面,中风有时会使人们丧失音乐能力,但是他们仍然能够说话也能听懂别人的话。这 就说明大脑是分别加工处理音乐和语言的。

通过研究音乐在人身体上的物理效应,科学家也了解到许多关于音乐是如何影响情感的。 但是,为什么音乐对我们有如此强烈的影响?这是一个更难固答的问题。伦敦大学学院的研 究员杰弗里?米勒认为音乐和爱有紧密的关系。音乐需要特殊才能、练习和体能。这也许是一种方式让你展示你适合做某人的伴侣。比如,按调唱歌或者弹奏乐器需要有很好的肌肉控制力。你也需要有好的记忆力来记住音符。能正确地演奏或者唱出这些音符也证明你的听力也非常好。所以,当一个男人唱给她心爱的女人时(反之亦然),音乐就可能成为一种展示的方式。

然而,米勒的现论仍然不能解释为什么声音的特定结合可以深深地影响我们的情感。对 于科学家来说,这显然是一个需要深人研究的领域。

第三部分:概括大意与完成句子 1、More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing

每晚只需8小时,睡眠过多非益事

睡眠不足带来的危害已经广为人知,而一项新的研究表明睡眠过多同样会使人们产生不良后果。

圣地亚哥加利福尼亚大学的研究人员发现在入睡、保持睡眠等方面,每晚睡眠9或10小时的人比睡8小时的人存在更多问题。而每晚仅睡7小时的人则表示,他们在入睡及休息后精力恢复程度上不及8小时睡眠者。

Daniel Kripke博士在《心身医学》杂志上报告的这些新发现表明,人们如果想晚上休息好,每天留给睡眠的时间只需8小时。他补充说,对于那些每晚睡8小时以上的人们来说,考虑减少在床上度过的时间“也许是个好主意”。不过他又提醒说这还需要进一步的研究证实。

以往的研究证明了长期睡眠缺乏的潜在危机。有报告显示,睡眠经常少于7小时的人比睡眠充足者,在特定时期内死亡的机率更高。

而在目前这份报告中,Kripke考评了一份1004名成年人参与反馈的睡眠调查问卷。问卷内容涉及每周睡眠时间和各种可能的睡眠问题,包括半夜惊觉,清晨早醒,无法重新入睡,以及白天疲劳,影响日常工作等。

Kripke发现每晚9至10小时睡眠者比睡8小时的人更容易出现各类睡眠问题。在次访谈中,Kripke注意到睡眠时间长的人夜间可能难以入眠,正是因为他们睡得太多了。因此