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护士考职称英语看什么书

时间:2016-12-06 来源:唯才教育网 本文已影响

篇一:2015年职称英语考试用书

2015年职称英语考试用书

2014年职称英语考试真题、模拟题尽收其中,千名业界权威名师精心解析,精细化试题分析、完美解析一网 尽!在线做题就选针题库:/要先看选项,寻找关键词,确定所考段落。完成句子则要根据所给的短句进行选择,比较好的方法是找同类动词。

同时读每段话时,要抓住该段话的主题句和核心词汇,正确答案常常是主题句的改写。读每段话时,并不是该段话全要仔细阅读。这样,既浪费时间,也不容易抓住重点。应该抓住该段话的主题句。

四、阅读理解:

首先要重点掌握教材上的阅读理解的重点文章的背诵,来抓住出自教材上的分数,这是顺利通过考试很关键的一步。

同时充分利用职称英语解题技巧,如关键词回归定位法通过做模拟试题来进行解题技巧的演练和应用。

在做题时要注意:搞清主旨题、细节题、推理题、逻辑关系题、观点态度题。注意标题、首尾段、首尾句、逻辑关系处、细节处等出题点;在阅读时见到日期、数量等要先做好标记,这样有重点有理有节的解题,才有可能取得满意的成绩。

五、补全短文:

要先看标题定文体,再看选项,观察选项时应注意抓主干,猜大意,弄清选项大意是表示定义、因果、例子还是措施;不要放过代词、专用名字、连接词、数字等特征词;然后回头再去看课文,明确1-5的位置。

解每道题时只需要阅读该题所在段落,不需要阅读其他段落。往往通过阅读该题目的前后句就能够确定答案,在考试时,应该注意利用以下前后句子存在的关系来做题:

(1)利用转折关系

(2)利用归纳总结关系

(3)利用总分关系

(4)利用并列关系

六、完形填空:

(1)掌握教材上的文章内容,尤/其是2014年新增文章。把这些文章在考前一个月内,争取背到“滚瓜烂熟”,这样,就算考试时怎样变化都可以应付。

(2)语法知识的总结和固定搭配、词组的记忆。这样在做题时,阅读整篇文章,考生才能从头判断每个空所缺的词的语言形式,如词类、时态、语态,并判断该词应具有的符合文章上下文的词义,最后从给出的四个选项中,选出在语法与词义上均与原文相符合的一个。

除掌握以上解题技巧外,考生最好配合在模拟真实的考试时间进行模拟试题的演练,这样不但可以直接掌握复习效果,还可以迅速找到自己的薄弱环节,通过单项训练,逐一提高成绩的目的。

首先充足的复习时间很重要,尤其是对于那些底子薄,年龄大的考生。在这里我们建议大家不要等国家统一的教材和大纲,因为新版教材和大纲往往都在12月底或者明年的1月初才会开始发售,而到那时据考试就剩下3个月的时间了,对于考生而言,这3个月是不够的,所以我们要提前开始复习。在复习材料上我们建议考生暂时先以2014年版的教材为基础,因为根据以往的经验每一年的教材和考试大纲不会发生很大的变化,所以以2014年的教材为主复习应该不会有错。

在复习内容上,专家有以下几点建议:1.在开始学习时要先入门,要先了解一下职称英语的题型概况和解题技巧,以一个整体的眼光去正确的审视职称英语考试,以一个良好的心态来准备复习。2.在教材和大纲还没有下发之前,建议考生先看一些基本的词汇和基本的句型,这些内容无论是什么样的考试大纲都是最基础的内容。但是我们提醒大家千万不要抱着一本高频词典每天死记硬背,这样效果肯定不会太好。建议现阶段学习时应多注意两个方面:

(1)最常见的动词介词的用法。在网校职称英语频道的复习资料里我们给大家总结了职称英语考试各个类别经常用到的词汇,大家可以去参考一下。

(2)着重复习句型与句法,尤其是复合句的构成及一些关系代词和关系副词的使用。在职称英语的国家教材和试卷中,不管是何种题材和内容,作为正式文体,其中的长句比比皆是,不熟悉英文的构句方式,行文习惯,即使认识每个单词也可能读得一头雾水,似是而非。

(3)多数考生工作比较繁忙,下班后只想休息缺少学习环境与动力,如果自学恐怕有些困难,我们建议有条件的考生可以参加我们的网络课程进行学习,每天学习2个小时左右。调查显示:每天学习一个小时的效果会好于周末连续一整天的学习。即使是基础特别差的考生,现在着手准备,每天学习2小时,明年考试顺利通过也是不成问题的。

2015年考试职称备考已然拉开帷幕,从现在开始复习,大致可以分成三个阶段:

第一阶段,基础巩固和强化复习阶段从7月初到12月末左右,考生在恢复和巩固词汇和语法知识的基础上,重点复习职称英语考试教材,主要掌握考试教材上的内容,包括各个题型的解题技巧等。

第二阶段,冲刺复习阶段从明年1月初到2月底,这个阶段考生一定要把国家教材上的东西基本上全部搞会。该背的背,该记的记,除了进一步复习国家教材以外,要做一些职称英语历年真题和模拟试题的演练,提高一下自己的解题技巧的能力。

第三阶段,串讲复习阶段在考试前20多天,考生要进行最后一轮的全面复习,重点复习教材上的重点文章,把职称英语六种题型解题技巧进行总结和归纳,做到“两手抓,两手都要硬”,这样才能确保顺利通过职称考试。

现在是7月,距2015年职称英语考试还有8个多月,别以为备考时间还有很长,钟表可以回到起点,但我们永远回不去昨天。所以请大家珍惜每一天,趁我们还有梦想,趁我们还能努力,我们一起做一件让自己感动的事——备考2015职称英语考试,过职称,升职加薪不是梦!顺利通过也是不成问题的。

职称外语各语种考试大纲未作修整,仍可继续使用。职称外语考试用书在原来版本的基础上做了调和修订。新修订的英语考试用书仍分为综合、理工、卫生三个专业。

新教材变化情况【职称英语三个类别(综合类、理工类、卫生类)】

1. 职称英语三个类别中的词汇选项、补全短文这两个题型的文章篇目均未作任何改变,与2012年职称英语教材文章一致;

2. 职称英语三个类别中的阅读理解题型文章均有变化:

1)综合类更新了2篇文章,仅是C类新增2篇文章(与2012年相比);

2)理工类和卫生类均更新3篇文章:

①理工类C级更新2篇,理工类A级更新1篇,理工类B级无更新;

②卫生类每个级别更新1篇(与2012年相比);

3)综合类:C级2012年已考文章均未删减;

理工类:B级和A级2012年已考文章均未删减;

卫生类:A、B、C三个级别2012年已考文章均未删减;

3. 职称英语三个类别中的完型填空文章变化情况:

①综合类:无更新(但2012年已考文章均未删减)

② 理工类:更新3篇(C级2篇,A级1篇)

③卫生类:更新3篇文章,每个级别各更新1篇文章。(但B级和A级里2012年已考文章均未删减) ⒋职称英语三个类别中的阅读判断题型文章变化:

① 综合类:C级和B级均各更新一篇;

② 理工类和卫生类:均未更新;

5、职称英语三个类别中的概括大意与完成句子文章变化:

① 综合类:仅C级更新一篇;

② 理工类和卫生类:均未更新;

一定要重视教材。人事部指定或者推荐的这本教材中会有30到45分,如果能把这30到45分扎扎实实拿下,基本上问题不大,如果把这45分全部拿到,就差15分就可以过关,所以还是比较轻松的,也就是说职称英语考试还是有一个范围的。

对于职称英语考试,排名第一重要的应该是重视国家指定教材,国家指定教材中有每年新增文章、有旧文章,会有30到45分,这个分数一定要拿下。

教材名称:《全国职称英语等级考试用书》

人力资源和社会保障部人事考试中心和国家外国专家局培训中心组编

出版社:中国人事出版社

(二)字典 职称英语考试中,有一道15分的大题,用查字典就能轻松突破,等于是送分题,因此,选择一本好的字典就非常重要了。我们建议考生,平时一定要多练习查字典,提高查字典的速度。

(三)历年真题 认真研究历年真题,研究历年真题是寻找出题者命题规律、以及解题技巧与方法,这个对我们将近55分或者70分会有帮助,所以应该两手抓两手都要硬,这两个哪个都不能少。但是作为复习的入手应该从教材入手,不应该从历年真题入手,因为历年真题是你已经达到这个水平了应该做的题,所以还是应该从教材入手,都应该偏重。

(四)模拟题

模拟题不需要做太多,三月初开始做,主要是熟悉考场节奏,时间控制,训练“考感”。

我们的职称英语指定教材有三百多页,光阅读理解就有50篇文章,阅读判断、概括大意完成句子、补全短文、完型填空各15篇,特别对于A级考生来说文章数量大,如何集中有效的时间和精力在最重要的文章上呢? 关注新增文章:大家要利用这段时间把2013年新增的文章,尤其是本类别新增的文章要仔细认真的进行背诵和复习,在背诵文章时,应注意以下三点:

(1)背诵每个题目的答案,不能只记ABCD

(2)关注文章的中文内容,为换题做准备;

(3)要全面重点背诵三个类别中新增的15篇文章,防止串考现象。 注意一下我们考试的新动向,就是说可能会出现串类考试的情况,比如说今年的卫生B、理工B考了综合B的文章,会串类考试。对比如明年要参加考试的考生,还要注意一件事,假如考卫生的同学,除了看卫生的,还要看理工和综合的文章,所以还要关注一下其他类别的新增文章。

还要注意一下换题,你把阅读理解或者阅读理解光把答案记下来是没有用的,就是说可能会换一道题或者两道题,所以对于重点文章我们做的最主要的工作,对于重点文章我们还应该把英文彻底看懂,或者每个教材后面都有一个中文翻译,把这个中文翻译老老实实的看明白。

因此,每位职称英语考生不但需要把文章搞清楚,而且要把文章读的滚瓜烂熟。重点文章最好还是背诵下来。当你把文章完全背诵下来的时候,不管完型考试中出现什么样的题目,都没有问题的。

篇二:2016年职称英语卫生类A级教材阅读判断打印版

阅读判断 +第十一篇

Disease may be defined as the abnormal state in which part or all of the body is not properly adjusted or is not capable of carrying on all its required functions. There are marked variations in the extent of the disease and in its effect on the person.

In order to treat a disease, the doctor obviously must first determine the nature of the illness –that is, make a diagnosis. A diagnosis is the conclusion drawn from a number of facts put together. The doctor must know the symptoms, which are the changes in body function felt by the patient; and the signs (also called objective symptoms) which the doctor himself can observe. Sometimes a characteristic group of signs (or symptoms) accompanied a given disease. Such a group is called syndrome. Frequently certain laboratory tests are performed and the results evaluated by the physician in making his diagnosis.

Although nurse do not diagnose, they play an extremely valuable role in this process by observing closely for signs, encouraging the patient to talk about himself and his symptoms, and then reporting this information to the doctor. Once the patient’s disorder is known, the doctor prescribes a course of treatment, also referred to as therapy. Many measures in this course of treatment are carried out by the nurse under the physician’s orders.

In recent years physicians, nurses and other health workers have taken on increasing responsibilities in prevention. Throughout most of medical history, the physician’s aim has been to cure a patient of an existing disease. However, the modern concept of prevention seeks to stop disease before it actually happens—to keep people well through the promotion of health. A vast number of organizations exist for this purpose, ranging from the World health

Organization (WHO) on an international level down to local private and community health programs. A rapidly growing responsibility of the nursing profession is education individual patients toward the maintenance of total health—physical and mental.

symptoms typical of a specific disease.

more willing to treat patients’ physical disease than their mental illness. C. Not mentioned

译文:所谓生病,即部分或整个身体不能够正常调节,或不能够维持应有的功能。疾病的程度及其对人体的影响存在着明显的差异。

为了治疗疾病,医生当然首先要给疾病定性,即诊断。诊断是基于一系列症状所作出的结论。医生必须通晓症状,即病人所感受到的自身功能的变化;且了解体征(也称客观症状),这些是医生可以亲身观察到的。有时一组典型的体征(或症状)伴随着某一疾病。这样的一组体征(或症状)就叫做综合病症。医生在作出诊断时,经常都要做某些实验室检查,并对检查结果进行评估。尽管护士不负责诊断,但是他们密切监视病人体征,鼓励病人讲述其本身情况及症状,而且将所得信息汇报给医生,在整个过程中发挥着极其重要的作用。一旦知道了患者的病情,医生就会确定疗程(也称为疗法),其中许多治疗措施都是在医生指示下由护士去执行的。 近些年来,广大医生、护士以及其他保健工作者在预防方面承担着越来越多地责任。贯穿大部分医学史,医生都是治疗病人的现有疾病,但是现代的预防理论却寻求制止疾病于未然,即通过促进健康使人们不生病。为了这个目的,从国际级的世界卫生组织一直到地方社区的医疗机构构成了一个庞大的卫生机构。医护行业迅速增加的责任就是教育每个病人保持全面健康,即身体的和心理的健康。

+第十二篇

A HOSPITAL error left a dying man on the wrong ward for two days as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) ravaged his body, an inquest heard. Stephen Melvin Newbold suffered massive brain damage when a blood clot formed in his veins. Now his families are considering legal action against York Hospital, saying that his death was “untimely and unnecessary”.

Mr Newbold, a 52-year-old maintenance worker, went to York Hospital on November 3 complaining of a swollen right foot. He should have been sent to a surgical ward where he would have been treated with1 Fragmin, a drug which counters the effects of DVT. However, hospital staff wrongly admitted him to2 an orthopedic ward, where he stayed for two days, before finally being transferred to the care of a consultant vascular surgeon. Twenty-four hours later, on November 6, doctors decided they would have to operate to remove his leg below the knee.

The operation went ahead on November 10, but two days later Mr Newbold suffered a cardiac arrest. A scan revealed he had had a pulmonary embolism, a condition related to DVT. Mr Newbold suffered brain damage and died in the hospital on November 16.

Giving evidence, the surgeon said he could not explain why Mr Newbold had been admitted to an orthopedic ward where it was not policy to administer Fragmin. He did not know why his medical team had not given Mr Newbold the drug later.

York coroner Donald Coverdale said, “From November 3 until the day of the operation, no Fragmin was given to Mr Newbold. If he had been admitted to a consultant vascular surgeon’s care from day one, it is clear that Fragmin would have been prescribed. Fragmin reduces the risk of DVT, but does not eliminate it. It is impossible to say whether Mr Newbold would have suffered this DVT if he had received the Fragmin.” He recorded a verdict of death by misadventure. Kim Daniells, Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer, said, “The family hope that the hospital will learn from the errors, and that no other families will have to suffer in the future.”

A spokeswoman for York Hospital’s NHS Trust said, “We would like to extend our sincere sympathies to the family of Stephen Newbold during this difficult time.”

patient’s death had been an accident.

C Not Mentioned

1经尸检确认,由于过失疏忽,一家医院将一名饱受深静脉血栓折磨、生命垂危的男性患者安置在错误的病区内达两天之久。当其血管内形成血栓之后,史蒂芬·马尔文·纽博得便饱受大面积脑部损伤的折磨。他的死被其亲属认为太过突然但却并非完全不可避免,其亲属目前正考虑对约克医院采取法律手段。○2纽博得先生现年52岁,生前是一名维修工人,其因感觉右脚胀痛于11月3日前往约克医院就诊。其本该被送往外科病区去接受一种名本法安明的药物治疗,该药物的主要功效在于抑制深静脉血栓的形成。但是,在其最终被转送到心血管外科医生诊室之前,医院医护人员却错误地将其送到了骨科病区,并让其在那儿住了两天。11月6号,在其被转送至心血管病区24小时后,医生们决定通过手术切除其右腿膝盖以下部分。○3手术于11月10号进行,但是两天后,纽博得先生的心脏却出现骤停症状。对其进行的扫描结果显示其患有肺动脉栓塞,发病原因与深静脉血栓相关。在经受了大面积脑损伤折磨之后,纽博得先生于1l月16号在医院死亡。○4基于现有证据,纽博得先生的主治外科医生称其不能解释为何院方在开始时将纽博得先生送至骨科病区,该病区并无开售法安明的处方权。其不能理解其医疗团队为何没能在之后及时给纽博得先生提供药物治疗。○5约克医院验尸员唐纳德·克夫戴尔表明,从11月3日一直到手术之前,纽博得先生一直都没能接受法安明治疗。如果能够在入院第一天就接受心血管外科医生的会诊,那么其肯定会被要求使用法安明。法安明这种药物能够减少深静脉血栓形成的风险,但是其无法彻底根除它。目前还不能得出结论,即如果在最初就接受法安明治疗,纽博得先生是否仍会遭受深静脉血栓折磨。该验尸员记录了这次由不幸引起的死亡。○6纽博得先生一家的律师金·丹尼尔斯声称,纽博得先生的家人希望医院能够从这次事故中吸取教训,以避免之后类似不幸事件再发生在其他家庭。○7约克医院国民保健服务基金会的一名女发言人在声明中指出:“我们在这一艰难的时刻,向史蒂芬,纽博得一家表示最深切的同情。”

+

阿塞拜疆的长寿秘诀

You can see for kilometers from the mountains where Allahverdi Ibadov herds his small flock of sheep amid a sea of yellow,red,and purple wildflowers. The view from Amburdere in southern Azerbaijan toward the Iranian border is spectacular,but Mr. Ibadov barely gives it a second glance.

Why should he?He‘s been coming here nearly every day for 100 years.

According to his carefully preserved passport,Mr. Ibadov,whose birth was not registered until he was a toddler,is at least 105 years old. His wife,who died two years ago,was even older. They are among the dozens of people in this beautiful,isolated region who live extraordinarily long lives.

Mr. Ibadov‘s eldest son has just turned 70. He lost count long ago of how many grandchildren he has.1 “I’m an old man now I look after the sheep,and I prepare the wood for winter. I still have something to do. ”

A lifetime of toil,it seems,takes very few people to an early grave in this region. Scientists admit there appears to be something in the Azeri mountains that gives local people a longer,healthier life than most.

Miri Ismailov‘s family in the tiny village of Tatoni are convinced that they know what it is. Mr. Ismailov is 110,his great-great-grandson is four. They share one proud boast: Neither has been to a doctor. “There are hundreds of herbs on the mountain,and we use them all in our cooking and for medicines”; explained Mr. Ismailov’s daughter,Elmira. “We know exactly what they can do. We are our own doctors.,

There is one herb for high blood pressure,another for kidney stones,and a third for a hacking cough. They are carefully collected from the slopes

surrounding the village. Experts from the Azerbaijan Academy of Science believe the herbs may be part of the answer. They have been studying longevity in this region for years. It began as a rare joint Soviet-American project in the 1980s,but these studies are not being funded any more.

Azeri scientists have isolated a type of saffron unique to the southern mountains as one thing that seems to increase longevity. Another plant,made into a paste,dramatically increases the amount of milk that animals are able to produce. “Now we have to examine these plants clinically to find out which substances have this effect,”said Chingiz Gassimov,a scientist at the academy.

The theory that local people have also developed a genetic predisposition to long life has been strengthened by the study of a group of Russian emigres whose ancestors were exiled to the Caucasus 200 years ago.2 The Russians‘ life span is much shorter than that of the indigenous mountain folk — though it is appreciably longer than that of their ancestors left behind in the Russian heartland.

“Over the decades,I believe local conditions have begun to have a positive effect on the new arrivals” ,Professor Gassimov said. “It‘s been slowly transferred down the generations.”

But Mr. Ismailov,gripping his stout wooden cane,has been around for too long to get overexcited. “There‘s no secret,” he shrugged dismissively. “I look after the cattle and I eat well. Life goes on.”

can‘t do any kind of work C A Right 译文:你可以看到公里从山上,Allahverdi Ibadov牛群他的小群绵羊在黄色的海洋,红色和紫色的野花。视图从阿塞拜疆向伊朗边境南部Amburdere壮观,但是Ibadov先生几乎给了它一眼。

为什么他?他一直来这里几乎每天都100年了。

根据他的精心保存护照,先生。Ibadov的出生直到他还是孩子才注册,至少105年的历史。两年前去世,他的妻子是甚至更老。他们是这个美丽的数十人,孤立的地区居住生活特别长。

Ibadov先生的大儿子刚满70岁。他早就记不清有多少他孙子。1“我一个老人现在我照顾羊,我准备冬天的木头。我还有事情要做。”

一生的辛劳,似乎很少有人在这个地区早期严重。科学家承认,似乎有什么东西在阿塞拜疆山脉,让当地人民更长,更健康的生活。

米里Ismailov家族的小村庄Tatoni确信他们知道它是什么。Ismailov先生是110年,他的玄孙是四个。它们共享一个引以为傲:无论是是一名医生。“有成百上千的药草在山上,我们用它们都在我们的烹饪和药品”;解释Ismailov先生的女儿,埃尔迈拉。“我们知道他们能做什么。我们是自己的医生。

有一个草为高血压,另一个为肾结石,三分之一干咳。他们小心翼翼地从山坡上收集周围的村庄。阿塞拜疆科学院的专家相信草药可能是答案的一部分。他们在这个地区多年来一直在研究长寿。它开始是一种罕见的美苏联合项目在1980年代,但这些研究并未得到资助。

阿塞拜疆科学家已经分离出一种独有的藏红花南部山区当一件事似乎增加寿命。另一个工厂,成糊状,大大增加了动物的奶量能够生产。“现在我们必须检查这些植物临床上为了找出哪些物质具有这种效果,“说Chingiz Gassimov,科学家学院。

理论认为,当地居民也开发出一种长寿的遗传倾向加强了研究一群俄罗斯移民的祖先被流放到高加索地区200年前。2俄罗斯人的寿命是短得多的土著山民间——尽管是明显超过他们的祖先留下的俄罗斯中心地带。

“在过去的几十年里,我相信当地条件已经开始对新来的人有积极的影响”,Gassimov教授说。“这是慢慢转移下代。”

但是Ismailov先生,扣人心弦的他结实的木拐杖,过于激动的已经太久了。“没有秘密,”他轻蔑地耸耸肩。“我照看牛,我吃得很好。生活还在继续。”

+第十五篇

Scientists have known for some time that virtually all cases of cervical cancer are triggered by a family of viruses called human papillomavirus, or HPV. Most women who become ineffected with HPV are able to shake off the virus and suffer no apparent long-term consequences to their health. But a few women develop a persistent infection that can, for reasons that are not entirely clear, eventually lead to cancerous changes in the cervix.

Now researchers at the Digene Corp of Beltsville, Maryland, have developed a test that detects an active HPV infection by looking for its genetic byproducts in the vagina. The HPV test was better than the standard Pap test at finding cervical cancer at any stage, according to two studies published this month in the Journal of the American Medical Association. So far, so good. Unfortunately, the test's false-positive rate—how often it indicated that there was a problem when none existed was almost twice as high as that for the Pap smear. In these cases, a biopsy of the woman’s cervix showed no sign of disease.

And that’s the crux of the problem. How many women should undergo what is, when it comes right down to it, unnecessary treatment to find a few more cases of cervical cancer? Shouldn’t health officials focus instead on making sure that more women undergo regular Pap-smear examinations? After all, Pap smears, though far from perfect, have helped dramatically lower the death toll from cervical cancer taking it from the No. 1 cause of death due to cancer in American women to the 10th.

Complicating matters is the fact that HPV is a very common infection. In some parts of the U.S. as many as half of all women under age 35 have an active case. Yet 99 out of 100 women who are HPV-positive will never get cervical cancer, estimates Dr. Joanna Cain, vice president of the American College of

Obstetricians and Gynecologists. “If those 99 women live their lives as if they’re going to develop cancer”, she says, “we’re not necessarily doing them any good.”

At present, the HPV test is approved in the U. S. only to help resolve ambiguous results from a Pap-Smear test. Many gynecologists believe that HPV will eventually replace the pap. But they’re not willing to abandon it without a lot more detailed information and neither should you.

replace the Pap. C. Not mentioned

科学家们已经知道几乎所有的宫颈癌病例都由一个家庭的病毒称为人类乳头状瘤病毒,或人类乳头瘤病毒。大多数的女性成为ineffected HPV能够摆脱病毒和对他们的健康没有明显的长期后果。但一些女性发展持续感染,原因不清楚,最终导致癌变子宫颈的变化。

马里兰州贝兹维尔现在Digene . n:行情)的研究人员,已经开发出一种测试,检测到一个积极寻找遗传副产品HPV感染的阴道。人乳头状瘤病毒测试比标准的巴氏试验在发现宫颈癌在任何阶段,本月公布的两项研究显示在《美国医学协会杂志》上。到目前为止还好。不幸的是,测试的假阳性rate-how通常表示,曾经有一个问题,没有一个存在的几乎两倍,子宫颈抹片检查。在这些情况下,妇女子宫颈的活组织检查显示没有疾病的迹象。

这就是问题的症结所在。有多少女人应该经历是什么,当谈到这件事的时候,不必要的治疗找到几例宫颈癌吗?卫生官员不应该把重点放在确保更多的女性接受定期

Pap-smear考试吗?毕竟,巴氏涂片,尽管远非完美,帮助大大降低宫颈癌的死亡人数将从死亡的第一原因由于癌症在美国女性第十。

更复杂的情况是感染人乳头状瘤病毒是一种很常见的事实。在美国的一些地区多达一半的35岁以下的女性有一个活跃的情况。然而99 99女性HPV-positive永远不会得到子宫颈癌,乔安娜·凯恩博士估计,副总统是美国妇产科医生大学的校长。“如果这99女性生活如果他们将开发癌症”,她说,“我们不是做他们任何好处。”

目前,HPV检测批准在美国只有从Pap-Smear测试帮助解决模棱两可的结果。很多妇产科医生认为人乳头状瘤病毒最终将取代人民行动党。但是他们不愿意放弃它没有更详细的信息,你也不应该。

篇三:2015年职称英语考试卫生类新(史上最全)

2015年卫生类职称英语教材新增文章的对比目录如下:

2015年职称英语教材卫生类的变动比较小,一共只有5篇新增文章。分布在阅读判断、阅读理解和补全短文:

阅读判断综合A新增一篇文章;阅读理解卫生C新增一篇文章;

补全短文卫生A、B和C各新增一篇文章。

完形填空卫生类整体都没有新增文章

Power Napping is Good for the I.Q.

Today we hear more and more about the importance of getting enough sleep—about eight hours a night. Sleep can help heal and give energy to both the body and the brain.

great effect on the two-thirds that we are awake. Sleep affects our emotions, memory, focus, and behavior. Studies show that people in developed countries spend less time asleep and more time at work or commuting. Dr. Karine Spiegel, at the University of Chicago, has found that the average length of sleep has gone down from nine hours a night in 1910 to seven-and-a-half hours a night today. However, our bodies cannot function well without

every hour of lost sleep at night causes us to lose one I.Q. point the next day. For example, when someone gets only five or six hours of sleep each night for a week, the person’s I.Q.

Most sleep experts say that humans need at least eight hours of sleep every day, but it should be in two stages: a long sleep at night and a shorter nap in the afternoon. Some To study sleep deprivation (not getting enough sleep), scientists use a test called the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). During the test, a person stays in a darkened, quiet room during the daytime. Scientists believe that a sleep-deprived person will fall asleep

1

quickly. If it takes ten minutes or longer to fall asleep, the person is probably getting enough sleep.

Scientists have also found that the time of year seems to affect how much sleep we need.

However, in the summer, people sometimes sleep as little as six hours, without having any problems.

Tracking Down HIV

In the summer of 1980, a patient had a strange purplish spot removed from below his ear. It was Kaposi’s sarcoma, a rare form of skin cancer. This patient also had lymph node swelling and exhaustion. In November 1980, a Los Angeles immunologist examined a young man who had diseases linked to immune system malfunctions. The doctor had a T-cell count taken of the patient’s blood. T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role1 in immune responses. The patient had no helper T-cells.

By the end of 1980, 55 Americans were diagnosed with infections related to immune system breakdown; four had died. A year later the death toll was 74. Intravenous drug users had T-cell abnormalities. People who had received blood transfusions showed symptoms of immune system breakdown. By July 1982, 471 cases of the disease, now called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), had been reported; 184 people had died.

In April 1984, American virologist Dr. Robert Gallo isolated the pathogen, or disease

producer, responsible for2 AIDS. He called it HTLV-III. In Paris, Dr. Luc Montagnier identified a virus he called LAV. An international panel of scientists determined that both men had found the same virus. It became known as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Blood banks began screening for HTV in 1985, but by then about 29,000 people had been infected through blood transfusions. Some 12,000 hemophiliacs had contracted HIV through blood-clotting products. By 1995, 477,900 Americans had AIDS; 295,500 had died.

In 1996, researchers announced drugs that reduced HIV in infected people. Today scientists are testing vaccines and believe that if HIV can be suppressed, then perhaps it can be eradicated3, but it is still a race against time.

练习:

1.This passage is mainly about _A___.

A the spreading of the disease known as HIV

B the work of Dr. Robert Gallo

C infectious diseases

D the symptoms of HIV

2.A T-cell is a __C__.

A patient’s blood

B deadly strain of tuberculosis

C white blood cell important in providing immunity to disease

D red blood cell

3.The final paragraph leads the reader to see that scientists _B___.

A have no hope in ever finding a cure for HIV

B have hope that a cure for HIV will be found

C have run out of time to find a cure for HIV

2

D are in a contest against each other to find a cure for HIV

4.The basic pattern used

护士考职称英语看什么书

to develop this passage is _A___.

A chronological order

B personal narrative

C comparison and contrast D question and answer

5.The word u eradicated the last paragraph means

__D__.

A

B

C

D

made extreme celebrated

remove by rubbing gotten rid of entirely

The Hope Children’s Hospice

The Hope

Children’s Hospice provides free specialist care for children with life

-limiting conditions who are not expected to live into adulthood. It cares for up to eight terminally-ill children at one time, and aims to care for them in the same way their families would care

Life-limiting conditions present many long-term medical and emotional problems-not only for the child, but for parents and siblings too. So the hospice offers respite care-short stays others with similar conditions.

Each child at the hospice has their own carer and their own care plan. A normal day might

video games, paddling pools, anti space for wheelchair dancing. Children have music therapy and can record their own music, not only as a way to express their feelings, but to leave something for their family and friends to listen to in the years to come.

The hospice has a number of quiet moms where we care for children during and after does not end with death. We help not just grieving parents, but also siblings who are experiencing bereavement. We give everyone opportunities to discuss their fears about death and dying.

Inquest told of hospital error

A HOSPITAL error left a dying man on the wrong ward for two days as deep vein

thrombosis (DVT) ravaged his body, an inquest heard. Stephen Melvin Newbold suffered massive brain damage when a blood clot formed in his veins. Now his families are considering legal action against York Hospital, saying that his death was “untimely and unnecessary”.

Mr Newbold, a 52-year-old maintenance worker, went to York Hospital on November 3 complaining of a swollen right foot. He should have been sent to a surgical ward where he would 3

have been treated with1Fragmin, a drug which counters the effects of DVT. However, hospital staff wrongly admitted him to2 an orthopedic ward, where he stayed for two days, before finally being transferred to the care of a consultant vascular surgeon. Twenty-four hours later, on November 6, doctors decided they would have to operate to remove his leg below the knee.

The operation went ahead on November 10, but two days later Mr Newbold suffered a cardiac arrest. A scan revealed he had had a pulmonary embolism, a condition related to DVT. Mr Newbold suffered brain damage and died in the hospital on November 16. Giving evidence, the surgeon said he could not explain why Mr Newbold had been admitted to an orthopedic ward where it was not policy to administer Fragmin. He did not know why his medical team had not given Mr Newbold the drug later.

York coroner Donald Coverdale said,

“From November 3 until the day of the operation, no

Fragmin was given to Mr Newbold. If he had been admitted to a consultant vascular surgeon’s

care from day one, it is clear that Fragmin would have been prescribed. Fragmin reduces the risk of DVT, but does not eliminate it. It is impossible to say whether Mr Newbold would have suffered this DVT if he had received the Fragmin.” He recorded a verdict of death by

misadventure.

Kim Daniells, Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer, said, “The family hope that the hospital will learn from the errors, and that no other families will have to suffer in the future.”

A spokeswoman for York Hospital’s NHS Trust said, “We would like to extend our sincere sympathies to the family of Stephen Newbold during this difficult time.”

练习:

1.The patient was admitted with an injured foot.<A

2.The patient was admitted to the surgical ward.<B

3.The patient did not get the correct medication.<A

4.The patient died before he could be operated on.<B

5.The patient died of brain damage.<A

6.It was decided that the patient’s death had been an accident.<B

7.Mr Newbold’s family’s lawyer was not qualified.<C

补全短文

The Enemy Within

Allergy has become more and more common over the last 30 years. Now one-third of us are affected by allergy at some point in our lives and half of these sufferers are children. In the UK, three million people suffer from asthma, and five per cent of children suffer from food allergy.

Allergy is a reaction that occurs when the immune system has a strange and unnecessary remembers these dangerous micro-organisms and attacks them if it meets them again. This work is done by antibodies. The immune system in allergy sufferers makes antibodies against harmless substances, because it mistakenly believes them to be dangerous.

An allergic reaction may not happen the first time a sufferer meets an allergen (the 4

substance causing the reaction, such as pollen, milk or strawberries). Sometimes people can eat nuts for years and then suddenly become allergic to them. What has happened is that the immune system has now decided the substance is dangerous and has made an allergy antibody. This antibody then attaches itself to cells, which contain histamine. 2_

that, the surface of the cells is broken, and histamine is released. The histamine and other chemicals inflame the tissues. This leads to the symptoms of allergy, such as swelling, rashes, sneezing, sore eyes and breathlessness. Anaphylaxis is the most severe allergic reaction of all and is most often triggered by wasp or bee stings or peanuts. This must be treated immediately.

antibodies, and they are more likely to develop allergies and allergic disorders such as hay fever and asthma.

wide range of additives and colourings; more and more people have central heating and double glazing, making our houses warmer and less draughty-an ideal environment to breed the house dust mite.

There may also be a link between allergies and antibiotics. At one time our immune systems were kept busy fighting off disease and trying to win the battle for health, but antibiotics have reduced the amount of

work our immune systems have to do. Now experts think they may direct spare energy to harmless substances such as strawberries. A good deal of research is being devoted to finding a cure for allergies. Sufferers may be given medicine to control symptoms, and they may also be offered tests to find out what substances trigger an allergic reaction so that they can avoid contact with these in future. 5